The Golden Era Flashcards

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1
Q

How did the Dawes plan come about?

A

In 1923, the allied reparations commission tasked an American banker, Dawes with finding a solution Germany’s economic problems. Dawes set out his plan in 1924, which allowed reparations payments to be more manageable.

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2
Q

What were the statistics on reparations? (3)

A

Germany only paid 1/8 of the total reparations
After 1923, they were never more than 3% of GDP
18,000 mil marks given in loans but only 11,000 mil paid in reparations.

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3
Q

What was many German’s reactions to the Dawes plan?

A

They were unhappy at being dependant on America.

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4
Q

What were some of the non-repreation terms of the Dawes plan? (4)

A

Allied troops would leave the Ruhr
All allies, not just France, would decide on sanctions if Germany did not pay its debt.
The allies would reorganise the Reichbank
The USA would give Germany a loan of 800 million Reichmarks to stabilise the economy

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5
Q

What did the Dawes plan do to reparations? (2)

A

They would be 1 billion marks in the 1st year and rise to 2.5 billion a year from 1928
Reparations would come from many different sources including customs and farm animals.

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6
Q

What happened to unemployment in the golden era?

A

From 1924-29 it increased, was the highest in 1926 when 10% of the working population were unemployed.
Dipped after 1926 so may have continued if the WSC had not happened

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7
Q

How was Germany’s economic growth?

A

Behind that of the UK, USA and France

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8
Q

What happened to farmers? (3)

A

They struggled to buy new equipment, or got into debt, after the modernisation of farmers across Europe created competition
Also struggled after an outbreak of foot and mouth disease, and due to poor harvests.
Agriculture prices fell by 35% and many farmers became unemployed.

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9
Q

What did the middle classes not like?

A

The welfare benefits that were introduced caused taxes to rise.

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10
Q

What did the RW/LW blame for economic problems?

A

RW blamed versailles and the republic

LW blamed elite for not investing more in companies

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11
Q

What happened to international trade?

A

Germany was in a trade deficit, (exports < imports) but much less than the 1923 deficit

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12
Q

What happened to wages?

A

Increased by 9% in 1927 and a further 12% in 1928

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13
Q

What was improved during this era?

A

Public services improved hospitals, electricity supplies, schools and roads.

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14
Q

What were the statistics on strike days

A

33mil strike days in 1919, only 3 mil in 1925

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15
Q

What happened to industrial production? (2)

A

Both iron and coal production doubled from 1923- 1928, industrial production overall doubled.
However steel and coal production still below 1913 level

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16
Q

How do we know the government felt economically secure?

A

They introduced welfare benefits.

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17
Q

When did the allies leave the Rhineland?

A

Left zone 1 near Cologne in December 1925, after Locarno, completely left in June 1930 (after Stresemann threatened to not ratify young unless it happened)

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18
Q

On what terms could Germany join the LoN? (2)

A

They were allowed to join after Locarno, and were given ‘great power status’ so they were on the council and could veto (reject a decision).
Could not take part in military action however

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19
Q

What was the treaty of Berlin? (3)

A

Between Germany and USSR
Publicly, neither side would attack each other for 5 years, and German banks would give loans to Soviet businesses.
Secretly, German troops began to train in the USSR

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20
Q

What happened to Germany in 1926?

A

Stresemann got the inter-allied military commission to leave Germany.

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21
Q

What was the Kellogg-Briand pact? (2)

A

Signed by 15 countries in Paris 1928, including Germany, they agreed not to use violence to settle disputes.
Eventually signed by 70 counties

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22
Q

What did Kolb say about Stresemann?

A

he was a cooly calculating Nationalist

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23
Q

What was the idea of fulfilment?

A

Erfullungspolitik
Continue to comply with Versailles as well as improve relations with the allies to gain trust and negotiate better terms.

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24
Q

What is the evidence for Stresemann being a good German? (6)

A
Treaty of Berlin
Crown Prince letter
Inter-Allied military commission
LoN
Locarno treaty
Dawes/Young (Dawes made it more manageable- 1 billion a year)
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25
Q

What is the evidence for Stresemann being a good European? (5)

A
Locarno treaty
Kellog-Briand pact
LoN
Kept paying reparations
Hague conference
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26
Q

How was Stresemann successful? (5)

A
He won the Nobel peace prize for Locarno
Given a seat on the LoN
Berlin treaty
Reparations more manageable, Rhineland 
Eastern borders up for debate
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27
Q

How was Stresemann not successful? (4)

A

Germany became reliant on American finance
Young plan mean reparations paid for long time (decided as The Hague conference)
Germany’s army well below UK/ France
ToV not destroyed

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28
Q

How did Sir Horace Rumbold describe Stresemann?

A

The ‘greatest statesman’

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29
Q

How was housing improved in Weimar? (3)

A

2 million houses built, 200,000 renovated
Homelessness reduced by 60% by 1928
By 1929 the state was spending 33x more on housing than it had in 1913

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30
Q

How was health improved in the welfare system? (3)

A

Hospital beds increased by 50% compared to pre-war years

In 1910, there was 4.8 doctors per 100,000, by 1930 there was 7.4

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31
Q

What was wrong with the health system?

A

There was an increasing belief that mental/physical illnesses were hereditary, which led to a scrutiny of people’s lives to decide whether or not they were entitled to aid.
This was against the constitution where everyone was equal.

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32
Q

By 1926 how many people was the gov supporting? (3)

A

360,000 war widows
900,000 fatherless children
2.5 million people total

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33
Q

What percentage of government expenditure was spent on pensions?

A

40%

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34
Q

How much were the working days increased by?

A

2 hours- 8hr day to 10hr day

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35
Q

How many workers did the social insurance scheme cover in 1927, and what was the problem with it?

A

17 million workers

Only worked when unemployed was less than 800,000, which never happened

36
Q

What was wrong with the welfare state? (3)

A

Elite didn’t like high taxes, which made them lose faith in Weimar
After the Wall Street class, no money spent on welfare
A lot of the middle/lower classes felt the welfare didn’t go far enough

37
Q

What happened with Ruhr industrialists in 1928 and how does this compare to living standard policies the government implemented?

A

They locked out 250,000 workers in order to break the power of the unions- (improving financial aid)
There was no mass outcry over living standards.

38
Q

What happened to the USPD?

A

Joined with SPD

39
Q

What happened to NSDAP and KDP seats?

A

KPD- 12% 1924 may 9% in 1924 december- 11% in 1928

NSDAP- 7%, 3%, 2%

40
Q

Who were the biggest parties in the Reichstag

A

SPD 26% 1924 and 30% 1928

DNVP 21%, 14%

41
Q

What happened to coups and political murders after 1923?

A

There was none

There was however street fighting between the SA and the red paramilitary fighting league, with 50 deaths

42
Q

What did Wright believe about Stresemann?

A

He had a strong commitment to European peace

43
Q

What did Henig believe about Stresemann?

A

He was ‘realistic’ about Germany’s situation and the need to win the allies trust.

44
Q

What happened at The Hague conference?

A

repreations agreed to be paid until 1988

45
Q

What did Carr believe about Stresemann?

A

His aim was to make Germany a great power again

46
Q

What did Ruge believe about Stresemann?

A

His long term policy was war-like expansion

47
Q

What does Marks believe about Stresemann?

A

He was a liar, dispensing total untruths

48
Q

What did Bookbinder believe about Germany?

A

It was the second biggest industrial power behind US during the golden era

49
Q

What did Carr believe about the industrial sector?

A

The extent of the ‘boom’ had been exaggerated

50
Q

What did Hite and Hinton believe about the economic recovery?

A

The Dawes plan helped genuine recovery

51
Q

What are two opposing views on the welfare state?

A

Lee believes the system was the most advanced in Europe, whilst Evans believes there was large gaps in it

52
Q

What did Bessel believe about the Welfare state?

A

The high costs of it was a ‘time bomb’

53
Q

What did Evans believe about the health welfare?

A

It became an instrument of discrimination

54
Q

What did Abelshauer believe about the welfare state?

A

It was an ‘over-strained’ welfare state

55
Q

What did Peukert believe about the welfare state and Dawes?

A

Policy always fell short of its objectives.

Dawes made Germany too dependant on US

56
Q

What was different between workers and farmers economically?

A

Whilst workers wages were increasing, farmers were becoming unemployed.

57
Q

What does Henig believe about the economy?

A

Whilst it was growing, many farmers did not feel as though they were getting their fair share.
(Finance sector improved more than agriculture.)

58
Q

What happened to the number of people voting anti-Weimar parties 1924-28?

A

48%-27%

59
Q

How many seats the KPD gain 1924-28

A

11 (45- 54)

60
Q

Who was Hindenburg and how much did he win by?

A

Won by 48% on second round
He was ultra-conservative, anti-weimar and only used the Reichstag for support
He never broke the constitution however.

61
Q

What did Kolb say about political stability?

A

It was fragile and superficial

62
Q

What did Hiden say about the politics?

A

Hindenburg was a Kaiser Substitute.

63
Q

What two anti-weimar parties were declining?

A

NSDAP and DVNP

64
Q

What did Bessel say about politics?

A

Anti-weimar parties lost ground.

65
Q

What does McElligott say about politics?

A

Weimar’s parliamentary system was stable

66
Q

What does Evans say about stability?

A

It was an illusion, created by hindsight

67
Q

What did the SPD do, 1923-28?

A

Refused to be in government, as it was easier to sit in opposition.

68
Q

What did proportional representation cause? (2)

A

There was large amount of narrow-sector parties, by 1928 there was nearly 70 deputies from them
Coalition governments often disagreed, led to there being 6 different governments, lasting an average of 8 months- caused people to lose faith in democracy

69
Q

What did Henig believe about Weimar?

A

It was not gaining acceptably or support

70
Q

How many Chancellors were there?

A

4, including Luther who was not part of a party

71
Q

What was the ‘grand coalition’?

A

Government 1928-30

All moderate central parties, SPD, DDP, DNP, Z.

72
Q

What did SPD do in November 1928?

A

They voted against their government over a plan to fund a new battleship.

73
Q

Why were problems in government worse than decline in Anti-Weimar?

A

Although anti-weimar parties were declining, the government system meant that DVNP were still in gov twice, making key decisions.

74
Q

What is my LOA for political stability?

A

Whilst anti-weimar parties did lose ground, there was still major instability in gov.

75
Q

What was the debate in economics?

A

Stability was an illusion- Lee

Hite and Hinton believed there was some genuine economic recovery

76
Q

What is my LOA for economics?

A

Finance and industry recovered to an extent, with finance recovering the most
Agriculture did not recover

77
Q

For how long was Stresemann foreign minister?

A

1924-1929

78
Q

What is the debate in Good European/ German?

A

Kolb believes he was a cooly calculating nationalist, Wright believes he strived for European peace

79
Q

What was in the crown prince letter from Stresemann?

A

Told the crown prince that he had to use ‘scheming’ to get rid of the ‘stranglehold on our throat’

80
Q

What happened at Locarno?

A

Stresemann signed it in 1925 in Switzerland
Meant that Germany accepted the Western borders and if they broke it they could be invaded
Did not agree on Eastern borders; Danzig, Czechoslovakia, Polish corridor
Poland felt betrayed by the allies

81
Q

Why could Stresemann be considered a bad German?

A

He continued to pay reparations even though there was other problems in Germany, such as unemployment

82
Q

What is the debate surrounding foreign policy?

A

Marks- Germany became the pre-eminent member of the European family
Henig disagrees, sees foreign policy as detrimental

83
Q

What did Kolb believe about Stresemann? (long version)

A

He was a nationalist but viewed European peace and German restoration as interdependent

84
Q

What was successful about the young plan?

A

Reduced the amount of reparations to be paid to 37 billion marks, also meant they were paying them for longer
Germany were allowed to take part in the discussions - successful relations built

85
Q

When was the Rhineland fully evacuated?

A

1930, after talks during young plan (5 years early)

86
Q

What was not successful about the young plan?

A

It tied Germany to US market fluctuations

It helped Hitler gain support and credibility

87
Q

How did foreign policy not benefit Germany domestically?

A

Stresemann’s subtle approach made the public question what progress had actually been made
It also caused political divide as public were still angry at paying reparations