WW1 loss and revolutions Flashcards

You may prefer our related Brainscape-certified flashcards:
1
Q

What was the Burgfrieden?

A

Peace in the fortress

At the start of the war the parties agreed to a truce

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
2
Q

When and why was the USPD created?

A

1917, split from the SPD as they rejected war policy

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
3
Q

What was the OHL?

A

Army dictatorship of Hindenburg and Ludendorff.
Hindenburg made the decision to continue the U boat campaign, which eventually brought the US into the war
Ludendorff offensive in March 1918 failed due to America joining the war

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
4
Q

How many German casualties were there in WW1

A

2 million soldiers killed or 6.3 million casualties- 54% of the army

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
5
Q

How was Germany’s true motive showed?

A

Many socialists only joined the war against ‘Russian barbarism’, but after Brest-Litovsk, Germany’s imperialistic aims were exposed

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
6
Q

What were some of the hardships in WW1?

A

Major food shortages- turnip winter
Shortage of fuel, coal (for heat), leather (for clothes), soap and metals
Mark lost 75% of its value and inflation occured

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
7
Q

Why were people resentful towards the rich during WW1?

A

A black market was created for Rich people to buy food

Industry made large profits off the war

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
8
Q

How many Berliners were on strike in January 1918?

A

400,000

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
9
Q

What happened in the Reichstag peace vote, 1917?

A

Voted for peace, 212:126

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
10
Q

What happened at the end of the war?

A

The Ludendorff offensive failed to break through the allies, and soldiers were loosing motivation and had little supplies.
Germany’s allies started collapsing in September- eg Bulgaria 30th
It became clear to the OHL they were going to lose and they declared bankruptcy on 29th Sep

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
11
Q

What was the stab-in-the-back-myth?

A

The OHL were keen to shift blame, and so Ludendorff placed the blame on the new civilian gov who signed the armistice. He claimed the army could have kept fighting and the ‘November criminals’ were traitors
This made the gov get a lot of criticism, and the RW blamed the LW for the loss.

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
12
Q

Were the public aware they were losing?

A

No, the army updates had been censored and false

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
13
Q

What did Hindenburg and Ludendorff recommend on the 29th September 1918?

A

A new civilian government to be set up ( to get better peace terms and to pass the blame) as well as an armistice

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
14
Q

When was the new civilian government set up?

A

It was set up on the 3rd October 1918, headed by Max of Baden as chancellor (appointed by the Kaiser)
Max was then asked to approach the allies about an armistice- and fought against the plan but eventually agreed
Was a government of socialists and liberals

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
15
Q

What was the parliamentary system before the revolution?

A

The Kaiser had almost all the power

It was very traditional

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
16
Q

When was the OHL sidelined?

A

26th October 1918

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
17
Q

What was said in the exchange between Wilson Woodrow and Baden?

A

On October 3rd Baden sent Woodrow a note requesting an immediate armistice based on the 14 points.
At first Wilson offered peace of Germany agreed to become more democratic, but after the Kaiser/OHL continued the war, Wilson wrote if he had to deal with them there would be no peace, only surrender

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
18
Q

What were Wilson’s 14 points?

A

A statement for how peace should occur, set out during Jan 1918
Mentioned the restoration of Belgium, an independent Poland, the league of the nations, the Liberation of France, a decline in weapons and open treaties and trading

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
19
Q

What were the main reasons for the revolution from above?

A

Stopping a potential revolution
Political divide
Appeasing the allies
Shifting the blame

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
20
Q

What happened at Kiel?

A

On the 28th of October Admiral Schneer ordered the fleet to give ‘one last blow’
Seeing the task as a suicide mission, the crew of two boats mutiny, raising red flags
The mutiny spread to 20,000 sailers at Kiel

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
21
Q

What happened after Kiel?

A

There was soviets and councils set up which then spread to cities, where strikes and riots occurred (Hamburg, Cologne, Frankfurt and Berlin)

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
22
Q

When did Constitutional reform occur?

A

On the 28th October, after Wilson had stated the changes Germany had made were not enough, the constitution was changed to give power to the Reichstag.

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
23
Q

What happened in Bavaria?

A

Kurt Eisner, part of USPD, led a socialist revolt which ended in the proclaim action of a new republic in Bavaria. King Ludwig III fled to Austria
Lasted until February 1919

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
24
Q

What happened on 9th November?

A

The SPD pulled out of Baden’s government and Ebert demanded leadership be given to him.
The Kaiser abdicated and fled to Holland
Karl Liebknecht announced a new soviet Republic

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
25
Q

Who announced a new soviet republic?

A

Karl Liebknecht, leader of the Spartakists, announced a Soviet republic in Germany once the Kaiser abdicated
Schiedemann (Ebert’s right hand man) announced a new republic without consulting Ebert, who was angry a new republic had been declared early

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
26
Q

When was the Armistice singed?

A

11th November 1918

How well did you know this?
1
Not at all
2
3
4
5
Perfectly
27
Q

What were the main causes of the revolution from below?

A

Inspiration by Russia
Chance to appease allies
Peace/ anger at war
Desire for socialist change

28
Q

What route did Ebert decide to take?

A

The moderate route, he was desperate to stop communism but decided to maintain order whilst new elections were being arranged

29
Q

What was the Ebert-Groener pact?

A

On the 10th November, Ebert phoned Groener and they came to a deal where Ebert would not interfere with the army as long as the army were loyal to him
Both men were scared it communism and so worked together
Had to stay secret however as Ebert was scared of LW reaction
It put the RW into a strong position later however

30
Q

Who was Groener?

A

Leader of the army, succeeded Ludendorff in Oct 1918

31
Q

What was the Zentralarbeitsgemeinshaft pact?

A

The ZAG or Stiennes-Legein pact
Between Hugo Steinnes (industrialist) and trade unionists led by Karl Legein agreed to the pact to stop the revolution from getting out of hand

32
Q

What were the terms of the ZAG pact?

A

Workers got an 8hr day
Established TU’s legal negotiating rights
Legalised workers committees
Later industrialists came to resent power given to workers and reject Weimar

33
Q

What did the National Congress or workers and soldiers councils vote for in December 1918?

A

They voted 344:98 to agree to Ebert’s plan to elect a new constitutional assembly
They voted to dissolve themselves
They did however favour some radical changes in the army that Ebert was not willing to change

34
Q

Who led the Spartakists?

A

Rosa Luxembourg, extremely smart and had a degree in law. Got arrested during WW1 for being openly anti-was
Karl Liebneckt, who founded ‘Vorworts’ a major socialist newspaper and was elected to the Reichstag
Membership was 5000 at start of 1919

35
Q

Who were the Spartakists?

A

Formed to oppose the war in 1916, in December 1918 formed the more official party the KPD
5000 members start of 1919

36
Q

Why did the Spartakist rising occur?

A

Angry that Ebert had not had a more socialist revolution and felt betrayed that elites, army, judges still had power
Blockade meant people were hungry and angry, and workers also on strike- opportunity
Tensions were already raised due to general election on January 19th

37
Q

What happened during the Spartakist revolution?

A

On the 5th January, Luxembourg called for civil disobedience and 100,000s of protesters take to the streets in Berlin
Vorwarts HQ is stormed and the KPD revolutionary councils called for revolution
Luxembourg tried to overturn the decision but is overruled
The KPD attempts to get Berlin army regiments to join- failed
The Spartakists seized key government buildings including the telegraph offices

38
Q

What caused the Spartakist rising?

A

In January 1919, Ebert sacked the head of the police Emil Eichhorn. Eichhorn was popular in Berlin and, because of his sacking, workers protested in the streets.
Upon seeing this protest, the Spartacist League took the opportunity to rebel and bring down the government. Following protests over the sacking of Eichhorn, a general strike was declared on January 6th, 1919. Over 100,000 workers were involved in the action and rebellion.

39
Q

How did the Spartakist rising end?

A

Ebert brought in the Friekorps and on the 10th January all rebel-held buildings were stormed
190 people died, including 17 Friekorps
Large number of strikers were imprisoned
On the 13th January the workers council decides to end the strike
On the 15th January Luxembourg and Liebknecht were murdered

40
Q

What were the effects of the Spartakist rising?

A

Highlighted fractures in LW, meant the LW would never work together again
Ebert looked like siding with the RW and betraying the revolution
Communists turned against the SPD and Weimar
Showed how weak Weimar was

41
Q

What is the evidence that the revolution was betrayed?

A
Mutinies demanded a new republic
Elites still had a lot of power- judges and junkers
Ebert-Groener pact
Friekorps used
Strikes in Jan 1919- workers still angry
USPD left gov
42
Q

What is the evidence there was not genuine desire for revolution?

A
Spartakists were a minority
ZAG pact made workers happy
Councils voted to dissolve themselves
Kasier lost power and Germany became more democratic
Elites only wanted to appease allies
43
Q

What happened in the Jan 1919 election?

A

High turnout- 83%
77% voted for pro-weimar parties
KDP boycotted the election

44
Q

Did the president show a revolution had occurred?

A

There was a complete shift of power from Kaiser to president
However still had potentially dictatorial powers.

45
Q

What did Watson say about the military defeat?

A

The stab-in-the-back myth was wrong- the army had run out of reserves and had no choice but to surrender

46
Q

What did Kolb say about the RFA?

A

Main reasons Ludendorff urged a civilian gov were better peace terms and the shift of blame

47
Q

What did Lee say about the revolution? (2)

A

It was caused by many factors, including defeat in the war, a disintegrating army and a radicalised left
It was evolution accelerated by necessity

48
Q

What did Taylor say about the RFA?

A

‘democracy came about without the knowledge of the German people’, essentially on Ludendorff’s orders

49
Q

What does Kolb say about the RFB?

A

A rebellion which spread like forest fire

50
Q

What did Peukert say about the RFB?

A

War had created feelings of expectancy that had not materialised

51
Q

What does Nicholls say about the RFB?

A

Most significant changes took place after Kiel mutinies, suggesting a revolution from below

52
Q

What did Kolb say about the Ebert-Groener pact?

A

Ebert had no choice in the ‘confused situation’

53
Q

What did Peukert say about the Ebert-Groener pact?

A

SPD had the balance of power and did not end to deliver themselves into the hands of RW militarists

54
Q

What did Namier say about the Ebert-Groener pact?

A

Due to the EG pact, Weimar was doomed at birth

55
Q

What does Harman say about the Spartakist rising?

A

There was a ‘lost revolution’

56
Q

What did Nicholls say about the Spartakist rising?

A

Ebert was supported by most Germans in ending the revolt

57
Q

What did Huges say about the revolutions?

A

There was a potential revolution which ran away into the sand

58
Q

What did Carr say about the revolutions? (2)

A

The achievements of the revolution were very limited, due to the socialist parties
The spirit of imperial Germany lived on- civil service, judiciary, barons and army still had power

59
Q

What does Brecht say about the revolutions?

A

Ebert had the majority of the working class behind him and it would have been easier to take the radical route

60
Q

How much money was spent on the war?

A

£8.3BN

61
Q

How many were killed by starvation and hyperthermia 1918 and why?

A

Heat and food shortages- allied blockade

293,000

62
Q

What reforms occurred on the 28th October 1918?

A

Voting became fairer, and the Kaiser lost power

Turned into a constitutional monarchy, like Britain

63
Q

What happened to the OHL?

A

Ludendorff fired, Hindenburg sidelined, 26th Oct

64
Q

How long was the Kaiser given to abdicate?

A

The army and Max of Baden put pressure on him to abdicate but SPD gave him 48 hours to abdicate

65
Q

How much did wages drop by during WW1?

A

20-30%

66
Q

How did TU membership grow December 1918- December 1919?

A

2.2 million- 7.3 million