What was a mandate?
A territory that had been transferred from the control of one country to another (e.g. from German’s control to the League’s)
What was the Mandates Commission?
A team of expert advisers who ensured Britain and France acted in the interests of the people of that territory, not its own interests
Why was the Mandates Commission necessary?
Germany’s overseas colonies had been taken over the League of Nation (in reality, Britain and France)
Did the Mandates Commission just focus on territories in the hands of Britain and France?
No - it also protected minorities, particularly in states that had been created as part of the peace treaties of 1919-23 (e.g. Czechoslovakia)
Why was there a need for the Refugees Committee?
WWI had left hundreds of thousands of people trying to get home - if they still had a home to get to
Which areas had the largest numbers of refugees?
Former Russian territories (the Balkans, Greece, Armenia and Turkey)
Who did the League appoint to find homes for these refugees?
Famous explorer, Fridtjof Nansen (Frid - t - jof Nansen)
How many people did Nansen and his team help return home?
How was the Refugee Commission considered?
As a tremendous success for helping deal with a huge refugee crisis (one of the largest the world had ever seen)
What did the Slavery Commission work to do?
Abolish slavery around the world - particularly in East Africa
How many slaves did the Slavery Commission manage to free?
200,000 (from Sierra Leone)
How many prisoners of war did the League help return home?
What was the Nansen passport?
A passport to stateless refugees, which allowed them to travel around the world. (Named after Fridtjof Nansen, the explorer.)
Who led the Health Organisation?
How was the Health Organisation regarded?
As one of the most successful of the League’s agencies
What did the Health Organisation achieve in the USSR?
It helped prevent a typhus epidemic in Siberia by organising a public health campaign
What did the Health Organisation begin with relation to mosquitoes?
An international campaign to exterminate them
What impact did the campaign to exterminate mosquitoes have?
It helped reduce the spread of malaria and yellow fever
What did the Health Organisation help establish in London, Copenhagen and Singapore?
Research institutions that helped develop vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus and tuberculosis
What is the best indicator the Health Organisation’s success?
Even after the demise of the League, the Health Organisation became the World Health Organisation, affiliated (linked) to the United Nations
What other successes did the Slavery Commission have?
Its persistent campaigning helped lead to Nepal, Iraq and Jordan outlawing slavery completely
Why was the Slavery Commission not a total success?
It failed to end ‘white slavery’ - where young girls and women are forced into prostitution. This problem still persists in some advanced countries today.
What was the aim of the International Labour Organisation (ILO)?
To generally improve working conditions around the world
How successful was the International Labour Organisation (ILO)?
Not very. Although it did raise awareness and popularise certain issues - like a 48 hour working week and a minimum employment age - few countries adopted these practices until the 1930s and 1940s.
How successful was the Disarmament Commission?
The least successful of the League’s commissions. It managed to organise the Washington Naval Conference of 1921, which led to the USA, Britain, Japan and France agreeing naval limitations. But the next conference was in 1932 - and it was a complete failure.
Why was the failure of the Disarmament Commission so significant?
It made it easy for Hitler to argue that the former Allies (Britain, France, USA) were not really interested in disarming.