When did the Spanish Civil War begin?
1936 - the same year as the remilitarisation of the Rhineland
What were the two sides in the civil war?
The Republican Government and the Nationalists
Who supported the Republicans?
Those on the political Left:
- Stalin’s USSR
- volunteers from around the world (including Ernest Hemingway and George Orwell)
Who led the Nationalists?
General Franco - a fascist
Who supported the Franco’s Nationalists?
Hitler and Mussolini - they believe Franco shared their worldview
What did Britain, France, Germany and Italy all agree?
That they wouldn’t intervene (although Germany and Italy blatantly did - and France did lend some support)
In what ways did Italy intervene?
Mussolini sent thousands of Italian troops (officially ‘volunteers’)
What did Germany send to support Franco?
Aircraft and pilots - who took part in most of the major bombing campaigns during the war
What was Guernica?
A small Spanish market town
Why was Guernica significant?
It was a civilian town - ruthlessly bombed by German planes in 1937
When was Guernica bombed?
Who painted a famous painting to commemorate the suffering of Guernica?
What were the consequences of the Spanish Civil War for Mussolini and Hitler?
Their bond was strengthened
What did Hitler believe after the Spanish Civil War about Britain and France?
That Britain and France would take no action if he broke the terms of the ToV
What did Britain start doing as a result of the Spanish Civil War?
Rearming more aggressively. The British PM (Chamberlain) was alarmed by the strength of Germany’s armed forces
Why were Stalin and the USSR concerned after the Spanish Civil War?
They were concerned by Britain and France’s lack of action.
Stalin started to think about alternative arrangements to keep his country safe. (See: Nazi Soviet Pact)
What was the outcome of the Spanish Civil War?
Franco won (and indeed stayed in power until 1975)
When did the Spanish Civil War end?
What did Hitler hope to achieve from the Spanish Civil War in respect to his navy?
If Franco won, Hitler hoped:
- Spain would become a German ally
- She would allow Germany to use her ports
After the civil war, did Spain become a German ally and allow the use of her ports?
In fact, Spain remained neutral during WWII (much to the chagrin of Hitler)
What did the Spanish Civil War provide the German Luftwaffe?
A chance to practise its dive-bombing techniques (e.g. on Guernica)
Some people think Hitler wanted the Spanish Civil War to be a smoke screen. What do you think this means?
That it would be distraction from what Hitler was doing in the rest of Europe
Did the Spanish Civil War provide a smokescreen?
Yes, mostly - between 1936 and 1939 Hitler was able to unite with Austria and take action over Czechoslovakia