Who disagreed over the Saar and the Rhineland?
Wilson and Clemenceau. Clemenceau thought Wilson was being too lenient on Germany.
Who got their way on the Saar and Rhineland?
Clemenceau - he got the coal from the Saar for 15 years and the Rhineland was demilitarised.
Who got their way on eastern Europe?
Wilson: self-determination was to take place in eastern Europe (despite Clemenceau and DLG’s belief it wouldn’t work).
However, this mostly affected the other treaties, not the Treaty of Versailles
What is self-determination?
The right of nations to rule themselves, not be ruled as part of an empire
What did DLG and Clemenceau clash over?
How to treat Germany
Why did DLG and Clemenceau clash over Germany?
Clemenceau thought DLG being a hypocrite. DLG wanted to take away all Germany’s colonies and its navy (which potentially threatened the British Empire) but treat Germany leniently in Europe.
Clemenceau pointed out that if DLG wanted ‘to appease’ Germany, he should allow them to keep their colonies and navy.
Who got their way between DLG and Clemenceau on Germany?
It depends. In the eyes of many (particularly Germany), the treaty was v. harsh (e.g. army reductions, lost 13% European land, £6.6bn reparations).
Harold Nicolson, a British official in Paris at the time, said the treaty was ‘neither just nor wise’.
However, historian Zara Steiner has written: ‘The ToV was not excessively harsh.’
On balance, though, Clemenceau was happier than DLG or Wilson. When the treaty was signed by the Germans, he announced it was ‘a beautiful day’. (Or: une belle journée)
What did DLG and Wilson clash over?
Point 2 of Wilson’s 14 points - “Free access to the seas”
Why did DLG and Wilson clash over “Free access to the seas”?
DLG wanted to maintain the British Empire’s naval dominance
Overall, what did Wilson get from Paris?
- a League of Nations
- more democracy (e.g. in Germany)
- self-determination in eastern Europe
Overall, what did DLG get from Paris?
DLG managed to protect the British empire:
- Germany’s navy was significantly reduced
- Germany lost its colonies
- no mention of ‘free access to the seas’ was included in the ToV
Overall, what did Clemenceau get from Paris?
- significant reparations from Germany
- Rhineland demilitarised - making France safer
- Germany’s armed forces massively reduced
- coal from the Saar coalfields for fifteen years
- Germany humiliated