Which attempted coup (violent overthrow) was inspired by hatred of the Treaty of Versailles?
The Kapp Putsch (1920)
Who exploited hatred of the treaty?
What has historian Zara Steiner argued about the Treaty of Versailles?
That it was the only issue that all Germans agreed on
When was the first instalment of reparations paid?
1921 (£50 million)
How much was the first instalment of reparations?
How much did Germany pay in reparations in 1922?
What did France do in response to German non-payment of reparations in 1922?
In 1923, it sent troops into the Ruhr and took what was owed in the form of raw materials.
Was the invasion of the Ruhr legal?
Yes - it was completely legal under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
What did the German government order workers in the Ruhr to do?
Refuse to work - so that the French would have nothing to take away
How did the French react to German passive resistance in the Ruhr?
Harshly. They killed 100 soldiers and expelled 100,000 protesters from the region.
What did the invasion of the Ruhr - and German passive resistance - lead to?
What happened to wages during hyperinflation?
They had to be paid daily rather than weekly (or monthly).
Who gained from hyperinflation?
Big industrialists and government - they could pay off their huge debts
Who suffered particularly badly from hyperinflation?
- Pensioners (their pensions were wiped out)
- Middle classes (their savings were wiped out)
Did the Treaty of Versailles cause all the problems in post-war Germany?
No - but the German people blamed the treaty for problems that had nothing to do with it. This bitterness was exploited later by Hitler and the Nazis.
Who ended hyperinflation and how?
Gustav Stresemann - by introducing the rentenmark