The Living World: Ecosystems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Living World: Ecosystems Deck (23):
1

What is an ecosystem?

A community of flora and fauna that interact with biotic (living organisms) and abiotic (soil, water, life, temp) components

2

Producer

Plants or organisms able to absorb energy from the sun through photosynthesis (making sugars)

3

Consumer

Creatures that eat producers and obtain the energy from them

4

Decomposer

An organism that breaks down dead tissue and returns the nutrients to the soil (e.g. Fungi, bacteria)

5

Food chain

Shows the direct links between different organisms that rely on one another as their source of food

6

Food web

A complex hierarchy of plants and animals relying on each other to survive

7

Nutrient cycle

When plants or animals die, the decomposers help to recycle the nutrients making them available once again for the growth of plants or animals

8

Abiotic factors

Non-living things in an ecosystem (e.g. water, soil, climate, light)

9

Biotic factors

Living things in an ecosystem (e.g. plants, animals, bacterium)

10

Biome

Large-scale ecosystems defined by abiotic factors (climate, relief, geology and soils)

11

Biosphere

The zone where life is found. It extends 3m below ground to about 30m above ground and up to 200m deep in the oceans

12

Biodiversity

The range of plants and animals found in an area

13

Latitude

How near to the equator an area is

14

Precipitation

How much rain or snow an area gets

15

Temperature

How cold or hot an area is

16

Characteristics of TUNDRA

Low-growing plants adapted to retain heat and moisture in the cold, windy and dry conditions

17

Characteristics of TROPICAL GRASSLAND

The dry season can be very hot, and wild fires can break out. During the wet season violent thunderstorms can occur

18

Characteristics of MEDITERRANEAN

Countries around Mediterranean enjoy hot, sunny and dry summers. Mediterranean vegetation include olive trees and fruit trees

19

Characteristics of TEMPERATE GRASSLAND

Inland, away from coasts with hot summers and cold winters

20

Characteristics of DECIDUOUS FORESTS

Deciduous trees shed their leaves in winter to retain moisture. The UK's natural vegetation is deciduous forest

21

Characteristics of CONIFEROUS FORESTS

Coniferous trees are cone-bearing evergreens, retaining their leaves to maximise photosynthesis during the brief summer periods. Better suited to colder climates

22

Characteristics of TROPICAL RAINFORESTS

High temperatures and heavy rainfall associated with equatorial low pressure belt, which creates conditions for plants to grow

23

Characteristics of DESERTS

Associated with sub-tropical high pressure belts. Sinking air stops clouds from forming, resulting in high daytime temp. and low nighttime temp. and low rainfall