Urban Issues and Challenges: UK Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urban Issues and Challenges: UK Deck (55):
1

Urban population

The number of people living in an urban area (towns, cities + suburbs).

2

Why is urbanisation occurring at a quicker rate in LICs?

Urbanisation is slowing down in HICs because they are further along the development process - industrialisation has already happened so many people already live in urban areas and are even moving out to rural areas for a quieter life.

Urbanisation is occurring rapidly in LICs as many people are moving to urban areas for job opportunities due to industrialisation. Jobs in agriculture in rural areas are becoming less popular as the economy changes.

3

Push factors

Things that make people want to leave rural areas:
-unemployment
-lower wages
-crop failure
-poor living conditions (poor health + education services)
-few facilities
-natural disasters
-civil war

4

Pull factors

Things that attract people to the city:
+ more jobs
+ higher wages
+ better living conditions
+ better education and health services
+ better facilities
+ less chance of natural disasters

5

The population of cities usually changes in one of two ways:

1) Natural increase
2) Migration

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Natural increase

When the birth rate is higher than the death rate so the population increases.

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Birth rate

Number of births per 1000 people every year.

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Death rate

Number of deaths per 1000 people every year.

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Factors of natural increase:

-civil war
-contraception
-famine
-disease
-natural disasters
-education
-family planning
+ medical resources
+ agricultural land

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Migration

The movement of people from one place to another to settle.

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Migrant

Someone who moves to another location.

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Immigration

Coming to live permanently in a foreign country.

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Emigrant

Someone who leaves a country.

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Urban growth

The population increase of an urban area.

15

Urban sprawl

The expansion of an urban area into the surrounding countryside.

16

Urbanisation

The increase in the proportion of people living in towns + cities.

17

Rural to urban migration

The movement of people from rural to urban areas.

18

Counter urbanisation

When people move from towns and cities to the countryside.

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Suburbanisation

When people move from the city centre out to the suburbs (edge) of the city.

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Isolated dwelling

Smallest settlement, just one building by itself.

21

Hamlet

A collection of houses and possibly a post office or pub or church. Very limited services and there may only be one bus per week.

22

Village

There are often a few services such as a primary school, post office, pub, church and a village shop.

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Large towns

They have more services and could have multiple primary schools, a secondary school, an range of shops and good transport links.

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City

Characterised by a Cathedral. It will have a large range of services and possibly an airport.

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Conurbanation

When multiple urban areas have joined together to create a larger urban area.

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Densely populated

Places that contain many people.

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Population density

The measurement of a number of people in an area.

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Population distribution

The spread of people across an area.

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Sparsely populated

Places that contain few people.

30

Urban deprivation

A standard of living below that of the majority of the country that involves hardship and lack of access to resources.

31

Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)

How urban deprivation is measured in the UK.
Areas are ranked in order of deprivation based upon multiple factors such as income, employment, crime and health.

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Brownfield site

An abandoned site that has been previously built on and can be used for redevelopment.

33

Greenfield site

A site that has never been built on.

34

Benefits of greening urban areas:

+ Improved air cooling, making it more bearable in cities in hot weather.
+ Improved air quality.
+ Storm mitigation, helping to reduce garden flooding.
+ Habitats for wildlife.
+ Improved health for plants + people who garden more.

35

Sustainable urban living

Living in cities in ways that don’t pollute the environment and using resources in ways that ensure future generations can also use them.
All facilities necessary for people should be available and areas are economically viable.

36

Urban regeneration

The investment in the revival of old urban areas by either improving what is there or clearing it all away and rebuilding.

37

Give 3 reasons why there are more cars on the roads now:

1) Increasing population means there are more people who need to get to work.
2) Cars are easier to use and more reliable than buses.
3) Cars are cheaper, so easier to buy.

38

Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Negatives of migrants moving to Leeds

-Language problems
-Racial/ethnic tensions
-Pressure on housing + services
-Limited skills/education
-Jobs lost to incoming workers
-Loss of those most likely to have education + skills

39

Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

How has migration impacted on the growth and character of Leeds?

+ Diverse food opportunities in restaurants, e.g. Chinatown in south of Leeds.
+ Diverse culture, e.g. carnival in Chapeltown to celebrate Caribbean heritage.
- Segregation of different ethnicities, which could lead to conflict.

40

Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Reasons why Leeds is a major city in the UK and the wider world

•UK’s fastest growing city
•Leeds City Region generates 5% England’s total economic output per year
•Leeds City Region economy is larger than 9 European countries
•50% all UK manufacturing takes place 2 hours from Leeds

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Deprivation in the UK

-The most deprived areas in England are in the north in places such as Leeds.
-Leeds is 31 out of 326 when ranking how many people in Leeds live in areas that are ranked amongst the most deprived 10% nationally.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Problems in Leeds caused by deindustrialisation

-The population of Leeds is expected to grow, so there will be greater demands in housing.

-More houses will be built on greenfield land, destroying habitats.

-In Armley 23.2% of people don’t have any qualifications.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Opportunities created by urban change - URBAN GREENING

•Growing plants whenever possible.
•Leeds has many green spaces, e.g. Roundhay Park - one of largest parks in Europe + one of Leeds' most popular attractions with over 1 million visitors each year.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Opportunities created by urban change - EMPLOYMENT

Victoria Gate:
•Largest John Lewis department store outside London.
•550 jobs created in John Lewis store in a range of positions.
•Victoria Supercasino will provide around 200 jobs.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Opportunities created by urban change - CULTURE

•The Grand Theatre plays many world famous musicals.
•West Yorkshire Playhouse plays musicals, comedy performances + film.
•Some of world's largest artists have performed in First Direct Arena.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Opportunities created by urban change - TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENTS

Guided busways:
•Separate roads for buses mean reliable services + reduced influence from traffic congestion.
•Improves public perception of buses + reduces congestion.

High a Speed Rail 2:
•Busiest station in north of England - major transport hub, so possible growth in rail use into Leeds in future.
•No. of passengers using Leeds station forecast to more than double over next 30 years.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Urban sustainability - Leeds Greenhouse Development, Beeston

WHY DID THE AREA NEED REGENERATING?

The site was a derelict, empty factory.
Lots of graffiti.
High unemployment rates.
Living conditions in Beeston needed to be improved.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Urban sustainability - Leeds Greenhouse Development, Beeston

MAIN FEATURES OF THE PROJECT

•The first carbon-zero mixed use development in the UK, which provides more energy then it uses.

•Solar panels to provide hot water.

•Well insulated with double glazing.

•Wind turbines to provide electricity.

•Car share, cycle storage + green buses to city centre.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Urban sustainability - Leeds Greenhouse Development, Beeston

BENEFITS

+ Improved living conditions
+ Facilities close by
+ Attracts new businesses into the area
+ Reduced reliance on fossil fuels

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Sustainable transport changes in Leeds

- M62 Managed Motorways scheme

•25km section of M62 suffers from heavy congestion, with over 140,000 road users per day.

•Scheme improves traffic flow here by reducing congestion, making journey times more reliable + improving safety of travellers.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Sustainable transport changes in Leeds

- Cycle Superhighway

•CS1 superhighway just over 14km of segregated cycle route between Leeds and Bradford.

•Linking key cities together provides many people with opportunity to cycle or walk, away from traffic.

•Predicted increased levels of walking + cycling will help region become less polluted, have healthier population, + create safer urban environment.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Sustainable transport changes in Leeds

- Park and ride schemes

•Drivers leave their cars in big car parks on outskirts of city, then regular buses take them to city centre.

•This reduces amount of cars going into city, therefore reducing congestion + improving air quality.

•This is generally cheaper than parking in city centre.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Sustainable transport changes in Leeds

- Congestion Charging (London)

•Congestion Charge is daily charge of £11.50 for driving vehicle within the charging zone between 7:00 + 18:00 from Monday to Friday.

•Easy to pay with Congestion Charge Auto Pay.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Sustainable transport changes in Leeds

- Bus lanes

•Lanes that only buses can use (+ sometimes taxis).

•Buses not held up by traffic, making them quick + reliable.

•Encourages people to use public transport as it becomes quicker + more cost effective than own car.

-Less polluting + reduces amount of cars on road.

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Urban change in a major UK city: Leeds case study

Positives of migrants moving to Leeds

+ Cheap labour - will often work for minimum wage
+ Often prepared to do unskilled jobs
+ Cultural diversity
+ Helps over come workforce shortages