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Flashcards in The Shoulder Deck (18)
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Why is the shoulder so frequently injured?

A lot of ROM at the shoulder joint with little bony stability (increases susceptibility to injury)


What is the most common dislocation at the GH joint?

95% of dislocation at the GH joint are ANTERIOR


What are three injuries associated with an anterior GH dislocation?

Hill-Sachs lesion: compression fracture of the posterolateral humeral head sustained during the dislocation

Bankart lesion: detachment of the labrum from the anterior glenoid rim.

Bankart fracture: if there is a bony avulsion of the glenoid rim.


What is the imaging study commonly used for initial examination of the shoulder?

Radiographs (x-ray)


List 4 pathologies an X-ray can identify at the shoulder.

1. Fractures
2. Dislocations
3. Calcific tendinitis
4. Arthritis


What are CT scans primarily used to visualize at the shoulder?

Optimal visualization of complex fractures, especially in characterizing fracture/dislocations of the humeral head


List 5 soft tissue abnormalities at the shoulder that can be visualized by an MRI.

1. Glenoid labrum tears
2. Rotator cuff tears
3. Impingement syndromes
4. Instability
5. Tendon and bursa abnormalities.


What joint is MRI most frequently performed on?



List 3 pathologies for which musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) equally evaluates at the same level of using MRI.

1. Bursitis
2. long head of the biceps tenosynovitis
3. Re-tears of prior surgical rotator cuff repairs.


What pathology is musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) better at visualizing compared to MRI?

Rotator cuff tears after total shoulder arthroplasty


What are 2 available imaging guidelines?

1. Appropriateness Criteria

2. Diagnostic Imaging Pathways


What 4 projections make up the routine radiologic examination of the shoulder?

1. a. AP ER
2. AP IR
3. Axillary view
4. Scapular Y view


What 2 sequences are included in the MRI protocol of the shoulder?

Anatomy-defining sequences (T1)
Fluid-sensitive sequences (T2)


What is an MR arthrography?

Contrast is injected into the GH joint prior to MRI examination


What are the ABCDs of MRI?

1. Alignment/Anatomy
2. Bone signal
3. Cartilage
4. eDema
5. Soft tissue


When are CT scans used at the shoulder?

1. Modality of choice for most skeletal conditions

2. When structural or spatial information of the bones and joint articulations is needed. 

3. To visualize any condition typically evaluated by MRI if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated


What are the 5 CT imaging principles (radiolucent to radiopaque)?

1. Air: black
2. Fat: gray black
3. Water (soft tissues): gray
4. Bone: gray white
5. Contrast medium  brightest shade of white


What are the ABCs of CT scans?

1. Alignment
2. Bone Density
3. Cartilage
4. Soft tissue