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OS 203 Finals > The Spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Spine Deck (114):
0

how many vertebra does a human have? how many are in each region?

32-34

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
4 coccygeal

1

significant motion only occur at which portion of the spine?

upper 25 vertebrae

2

T/F the size of the vertebral body increases as the column descends

T

3

anterior part which gives strength to the vertebral column

vertebral body

4

what consists the vertebral arch?

pedicles(pillars) and lamina(roof)

5

most important stabilizing structure of posterior elements of the vertebra

pars interarticularis

6

hole where nerve roots pass

neuroforamina

7

vertebral arch+posterior surface of vertebral body

vertebral foramen

8

foramen formed by the superior and inferior vertebral notches of the adjacent vertebrae

intervertebral foramen

9

spinal nerves passes through which foramen?

intervertebral foramen

10

what passes through the transverse foramen?

vertebral arteries

11

ligament demarcating anterior and posterior elements

posterior longitudinal ligament

12

distribution of weight bore by the anterior and posterior elements

anterior: 80% posterior: 20%

13

what gives the spine its flexibility?

IV discs

14

what determines the degree of motion of the spine

angle/direction of facets

15

most movable portion of the spine

cervical

16

angle of facet joints of cervical, lumbar and thoracic segments

cervical: 45deg
thoracic: 60deg
lumbar: 90deg

17

[spine segment] small body, largest canal, short bifurcated spinous process, thin lamina

cervical

18

[spine segment] medium sized body, smallest canal, long caudad spinous process, short transverse process, medium thickness laminae

thoracic vertebrae

19

[spine segment] large canal, short, broad spinous processes, broad transverse process, broad strong laminae

lumbar

20

which spine segment has a thin intervertebral disc compared to others?

cervical

21

which atypical vertebra?

with ring, no body, no spinous process, short transverse process, with lateral masses

C1/atlas

22

which atypical vertebra?

only vertebra with specialized process(dens/odontoid process), with thick lamina, has superior articulating facets

C2/axis

23

which atypical vertebra

has vertebra prominens, only cervical vertebra with a spinous process that is not bifid

C7

24

[significance] lateral masses of the atlas

bear weight of the skull

25

[significance] superior articular facets of axis

where atlas rotates

26

which atypical vertebra?

with a long spinous process, almost as prominent as C7

T1

27

thoracic vertebrae that has mammillary processes

T9-T12

28

what muscles attaches to the mammillary processes of the thoracic vertebrae?

intertransversarii and multifidus

29

T/F the lumbar vertebrae facilitates flexion and extension but not rotation

T

30

what is the largest movable vertebra?

L5

31

provides strength and stability to the pelvis and transmits weight of the body to the pelvic girdle

sacral vertebrae

32

how many sacral foramina are there?

4

33

important obstetrical landmark

sacral promontory

34

which coccygeal vertebra is the largest?

Co1

35

muscles that attach to the coccyx

gluteus maximus, coccygeus, pubococcygeus

36

what is the first secondary curvature and when is it developed?

cervical lordosis; after birth

37

where is the center of gravity in a baby?

between its forelegs

38

where is the center of gravity in an adult?

2 inches in front of S2

39

what is the 2nd secondary curvature ans when does it develop?

lumbar lordosis; baby

40

at 5-6 y.o, the spinal cord stops growing. at what vertebral level would the spinal cord end?

conus medullaris (tip of spinal cord) would be at L1

41

motions that the cervical vertebrae are capable of

flex, extend, rotate, laterally bend

42

what structures prevent the thoracic vertebrae from extension?

spinous processes

43

motions that the thoracic vertebrae are capable of

flex, rotate, laterally bend

44

a true joint with capsule, hyaline cartilage and synovial membrane in the articulating surface

diarthrodial joint

45

example of a diarthrodial joint in the vertebral column

joint over the facets

46

movement allowed by diarthrodial joint

gliding (e.g. between vertebrae)

47

articulation where bony surfaces are connected by interosseous ligament

syndesmosis

48

examples of syndesmosis in the vertebral column and the corresponding ligaments

between laminae: ligamentum flavum, between spinous processes: interspinous ligament

49

most important joint in the spine

amphiarthrodial joint between the IV discs

50

the IV discs are made of

fibrocartilage

51

what type of joint so you use when you nod, and what forms it?

condyloid joint formed by the skull and the atlas

52

what type of joint do you use when you shake your head as if saying no? what forms this joint?

trochoid; atlas and axis

53

on what bone do we sit on?

ischial tuberosity

54

arrange the following in ascending order of which the spine is strongest in:

compression, torsion, bending, shear

shear

55

give the breakdown of torsional load on the spine

50% disc
20% ligaments
30% facets

56

strongest ligament in the vertebral column

anterior logitudinal ligament

57

extent of anterior longitudinal ligament

sacrum-c1

58

functions of anterior longitudinal ligament

maintains stability of IV discs; prevents hyperextension of vertebral column

59

T/F the anterior longitudinal ligament helps when you straighten up by recoil

T

60

ligament with the most number of nociceptors

posterior longitudinal ligament

61

cord-like ligament connecting the apices of spinous processes from c7 to sacrum

supraspinous ligament

62

which ligament has a lot of proprioceptors?

supraspinous ligament

63

ligament connecting adjacent transverse processes

intertransverse ligaments

64

which ligament limits lateral bending?

intertransverse ligament

65

which ligament limits flexion?

interspinous ligament

66

which ligament prevents hyperflexion and posterior protrusion of IV discs?

posterior longitudinal ligament

67

why is the ligamentum flavum yellow?

because it is abundant in elastin

68

which ligament assists in straightening spine after flexing?

ligamentum flavum

69

secures dens process to occupit, connects dens to tubercles on medial side of occipital condyle, and limits flexion and rotation in the CV complex

alar ligament

70

most important ligament over C1 and C2; securely fastens dens between C1 and C2

transverse atlantal ligament

71

ligament between ribs and transverse process

costotransverse ligament

72

secures dens to occiput

occipitodental ligament

73

prevent easy breakage of connection to the head

atlanto-occipital ligament

74

[function] IV discs

shock absorption/ energy dissipation/ cushioning

75

protrusion of the nucleus pulposus into the annulus fibrosus

herniation/ slipped disc

76

T/F central herniation is more common than posterolateral herniation

F

77

4 types of herniation

protrusion - bulging of nucleus pulposus without thinning of annulus fibrosus
prolapse - bulging of nucleus pulposus but with thinning annulus fibrosus
extrusion - ruptures annulus fibrosus but with no detachments escaping into the spinal canal
sequestration - parts of nucleus pulposus escapes into spinal canal; diagnosed with MRI and needs surgery

78

What is the gross mover of the spine?

erector spinae

79

what muscles make up the erector spinae?

iliocostalis, logissimus, spinalis

80

main action of transversocostal group

bilateral action: extends vertebral column and head, back is flexed,

unilateral action: laterally flex vertebral column

81

what comprises the transversocostal group?

splenius capitis, splenius cervicis, erector spinae

82

what happens to a patient if the multifidus is injured suring surgery?

back pain to muscle weakness through the years

83

major posterior stabilizer of the spine

multifidus

84

fine steering movement of the spine is due to

rotatores + multifidus

85

the artery of adamkiewicz is found at which vertebral levels?

T10-L2

172

how many anterior spinal artery are there? posterior?

1;2

173

what type of lever is the spine along the sagittal plane, coronal plabe and top view?

1st class lever

174

arrange the following in ascebding order of strength

vertebral body, pedicle, facets, spinous process

spinous process

175

arrange the following in order of ascending strength:

ALL(anterior longitudinal ligament), LF (ligamentum flavum), PLL(posterior longitudinal ligament), ISL(interspinous ligament), FC(facet capsule)

ISL

176

how much force/ weight will it take to break the vertebral body?

6000 N/ 612kg

177

T/F at 816kg (8000 N), the IV disc will still
be intact

T

178

at what force/ weight will the ligaments get damaged, and disc herniated?

900 kg (9000N)

179

what composes the functional unit of the vertebral column?

2 vertebrae and the disc in between

180

most thoracolumbar fractures happen at what region?

L1-T12

181

inflammation of the spine

spondylitis

182

defect in pars interarticularis; gives the dog collar

spondylolysis

183

instability of the degenerating spine

spondylosis

184

disengagement of the superior vertebra from the inferior

spondylolisthesis

185

T/F all spondylolysis eventually lead to spondylolisthesis

F

186

T/F all spondylolisthesis has an aspect of spondylolysis

T

187

damage to the back of the spinal cord causing loss in proprioception and difficulty in coordinating limb movements

posterior cord syndrome

188

damage on one side of the spinal cord causing loss of motor function on the ipsilateral side; pain and temp sensation may still be preserved

Brown-Sequard syndrome

189

[define] anterior cord syndrome

damage towards the front of the spinal cord; loss of motor function and pain, temp, touch sensation

190

among the incomplete spinal cord injuries, which has the worst prognosis? the best?

anterior spine injury; Brown-Dequard Syndrome

191

bone grafts to replace IV discs are obtained from

the iliac crest

192

what is the hallmark of osteoporosis?

vertebral compression fracture

193

vitamin lacking in those who get osteoporosis

vit D

194

at what angles should a scoliotic spine be for it to require surgical intervention?

>40; if <=40, surgery is unnecessary

195

how do you test for scoliosis?

clasp hands as if praying then bend over; ribs will protrude out

196

the transversocostal group is innervated by

posterior rami of spinal nerves

197

[action] splenius capitis and cervicis

acting alone: laterally flex neck and rotate head to side of active muscles

acting together: extend head and neck

198

[action] semispinalis

extends head and thoracic and cervical regions of vertebral column, and rotates them contralaterally

199

[action] rotatores

stabilizes vertebra and assist with local extension and rotatory movements