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Flashcards in The Structure and Function of the Skin Deck (122)
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1

Where is the epidermis?

The outer layer

2

Describe the epidermis

Stratified cellular epithelium

3

Where is the dermis?

Beneath the epidermis

4

Describe the dermis

Connective tissue

5

Where does the epidermis come from and how does it form?

Ectoderm cells form a single layer periderm. This gradually increases in layers of cells and the periderm cells cast off

6

How is the dermis formed?

From mesoderm below ectoderm

7

What are melanocytes

Pigment producing cells

8

Where do melanocytes migrate from

The neural crest

9

What 5 things does the skin consist of?

Epidermis
Appendages
Dermo-epidermal junction
Dermis
Sub-cutis

10

Give 4 examples of Appendages

Nails
Hair
Glands
Mucosae

11

What is the majority of the epidermis made up of and what does it contain?

keratinocytes. It contains structural keratins

12

What are the 4 types of epidermal cell layers

Keratin
Granular
Prickle cell
Basal

13

How is the regulation of epidermal turnover controlled

Growth factors
Cell death
Hormones

14

In what two scenarios is there a loss of control in the epidermal turnover

Skin Cancer
Psoriasis

15

Histologically, what happens to the cells in psoriasis

They migrate

16

Where do keratinocytes migrate from?

The basement membrane

17

How thick is the basal layer

One cell thick

18

What type of cell makes up the basal layer

Small cuboidal

19

What is the main feature of the basal layer

It is highly metabolically active

20

What are there lots of in the prickle cell layer

desmosomes (connections)

21

What connects to desmosomes

Intermediate filaments

22

What is the granular layer made up of

2-3 layers of flatter cells
High lipid content

23

What is unusual about the cells in the granular layer

Cell nuclei are lost

24

What is the main function of the keratin layer

To provide a tight waterproof barrier to keep you from losing water

25

What common skin disease affects keratinocytes and what does it cause?

HPV - causes warts

26

Where are the mucosal membranes in the body

Eyes
Mouth
Nose
Genito-urinary tract
Gi tract

27

What are the 3 other types of epidermal cells

Melanocytes (basal & suprabasal)
Langerhans cells (suprabasal)
Merkel cells (basal)

28

At what stage do melanocytes migrate from the epidermis to the neural crest

In the first 3 months of foetal development

29

What are the organelles called that melanocytes contain

Melanosomes

30

What is the function of melanocytes

To convert tyrosine to melanin