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Dermatology > Topical Skin Therapeutics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topical Skin Therapeutics Deck (46):
1

What are the 2 advantages of topical treatments

Direct application
Reduced systemic effects

2

What are the 3 disadvantages of topical treatments

Time consuming
Correct dosage can be difficult
Messy to use

3

What are the 5 main types of bases/ vehicles used

Gels
creams
ointments
pastes
lotions

4

Creams contain preservatives. What is the function of having them in creams

The prevent bacterial contamination and also increase shelf life

5

What are some benefits of creams

Cool and provide moisture
Non- greasy
Easy to apply
cosmetically acceptable

6

What are creams made from

Semisolid emulsion of oil in water

7

What are ointments made from

Semisolid grease/ oil (soft paraffin)

8

What is the main benefit of an ointment

Restrict transepidermal water loss

9

What is the main disadvantage of an ointment

Greasy - less cosmetically attractive and can problems at work etc.

10

Do ointments contain preservatives

No

11

What are lotions made up of

Liquid formulation
Medication in water, alcohol or other liquids

12

What may happen if alcohol is in the lotion

It may cause the area to sting

13

What areas are lotions used to treat

Scalp, hair-bearing areas

14

What are gels

Thickened aqueous lotins

15

Describe the texture of gels

Semi-solids, containing high molecular weight polymer

16

Where are gels used to treat?

scalp, hair bearing areas, face

17

What texture are pastes

Semisolids

18

What do pastes contain

fines powdered material e.g. ZNO

19

What is the difficulty in using pastes

Stiff, greasy and difficult to apply

20

What are the benefits of using a paste

protective, occlusive and hydrating

21

When are pastes often used

In cooling, drying and soothing bandages

22

What do emollients do

Wnhance rehydration of epidermis

23

What are emollients used for

For all dry/ scaly conditions especially eczema

24

How much of an emollient should be prescribed weekly

300-500g

25

What are wet wrap therapy used for

Very dry (xerotic) skin

26

What is the main disadvantage of applying wet wraps

Difficult and time consuming to apply

27

Why are topical corticosteroids effective

Vasoconstrictive
Anti-inflammatory
Antiproliferative

28

What is a mild topical steroid

Hydrocortisone

29

What is a very potent topical steroid

Clobetasol Proprionate

30

How do topical steroids work

Reduce inflammation and cause immune suppression

31

For a whole adult to be covered by an ointment, how much would be required

20-30g

32

What are some side effects of topical steroids

Thinning of the skin
Purpura
stretch marks
telangectasia
perioral dermatitis
steroid rosacea
systemic absorption

33

What are 3 clinical uses of antiseptics

Recurrent infections
Antibiotic resistance
Wound irrigation

34

What is a popular antiseptic

Potassium permanganate

35

What 2 conditions really benefit from potassium permanganate

Acute exudative eczema
Pompholyx

36

What 4 conditions benefit from topical antibiotics

Acne
Rosacea
Impetigo
Infected eczema

37

What are 3 conditions that benefit from antiviral agents

Herpes simplex
Eczema herpeticum
Herpes Zoster (shingles)

38

What are 3 uses for topical antifungals

Candida (thrush)
Dermatophytes (ringworm)
Pityriasis versicolor

39

Why might menthol be used as an antipruritics

Impart cooling sensation

40

How does capsaicin work

depletes substance P at nerve ending and reduces neurotransmission

41

What is the function of keratolytics

Used to soften keratin

42

When might keratolytics be used

Viral warts
Hyperkeratotic eczema and psoriasis
Corns and calluses
To remove keratin plaques in the scalp

43

Give an example of a keratolytic

Salicylic acid

44

Give some examples of the treatment of warts

Keratolytics
Formaldehyde
Glutaraldehyde
Silver nitrate
Liquid nitrongen - cryotherapy
Podophyllin (genital warts)

45

Give some examples of topical psoriasis treatments

Emollients of choice
Coal tar
Vitamin D analogue
Keratolytic
Topical steroid
DIthranol

46

What are some side effects of topical therapies

Burning or irritation
Contact allergic dermatitis
Local toxicity
Systemic toxicity