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Flashcards in The vascular system and blood Deck (28)
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1

What are the main plasma proteins?

- Albumin

- Globulin

- Fibrinogen

2

What are the main cells found in the bood?

1. Erythrocytes (red blood cells)

2. Leukocytes (white blood cells)

3. Platelets

3

What is the diameter of a red blood cell?

~7 µm

4

What is the lifespan of a red blood cell?

120 days

5

What are platelets derived from?

Megakaryocytes

6

What is the lifespan of a platelet?

10 days

7

What are the 2 categories of white blood cells?

1. Granuocytes

2. Agranulocytes

8

What are the types of granulocytes?

1. Neutrophils

2. Eosinophils

3. Basophils

9

What are the functions of neutrophils?

Ingests and destroys antibody-bound complexes.

10

What is the relative proportions of different types of white blood cells in the body?

- Neutrophils: 50-60%

- Eosinophils: 1-2%

- Basophils: 0-1%

- Monocytes: 4-8%

- Lymphocytes: 20-30%

11

What prominent feature is seen in female neutrophils?

Barr body

12

What are the functions of eosinophils?

- Phagocytosis of bacteria.

- Killing of phagocytes.

- Produces substances involved in allergic reactions.

13

What are the functions of basophils?

Systemic anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity during allergic reactions.

14

What are the types of agranulocytes?

1. Monocytes

2. Lymphocytes

15

What are the functions of monocytes?

- Leave the circulation to become macrophages.

- Involved in engulfing bacteria and cellular debris.

16

What are the types of lymphocytes?

1. B-lymphocytes

2. T-lymphocytes

17

What are the layers of a typical blood vessel and their contents?

1. Tunica intima:

- Endothelium

- Basement membrane

- Connective tissue

- Internal elastic lamina

2. Tunica media:

- Smooth muscle

- Elastin

- Collagen

- External elastic lamina

3. Tunica adventitia:

- Connective tissue (collagen, elastin)

- Nerves

- Vaso vasorum

18

What are the different types of arteries?

1. Elastic artery

2. Muscular artery

19

What are the key features of arterioles?

1. They have very thin tunica intima.

2. Intima media contains mainly smooth muscle.

3. No external elastic lamina.

4. Tunica adventitia merges with surrounding tissues.

20

What are the key features of veins?

1. They have a much smaller wall:lumen ratio.

2. They have less well developed tunica media.

3. No obvious internal elastic lamina.

21

What are the features of venules?

- No tunica media.

- Thin layer if endothelium lined by some connective tissue.

22

What is the main distinguishing factor between veins and lymphatic vessels?

- Lymphatic vessels lack red blood cells.

- Presence of precipitated lymph protein.

23

What is the diameter of capillaries?

5-8 µm

24

What are the types of capillaries?

1. Continuous capillaries

2. Fenestrated capillaries

3. Sinusoidal capillaries

25

What is the lifespan of a neutrophil?

1-2 days

26

Where are continuous capillaries commonly found?

- Connective tissue

- Muscle

- Lungs

- Brain

27

Where are fenestrated capillaries commonly found?

- Kidneys

- Small intestines

- Endocrine glands

28

Where are sinusoidal capillaries commonly found?

- Liver

- Spleen

- Lymphatic tissue

- Bone marrow

- Endocrine glands