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Flashcards in Thinkers Liberal Deck (14)
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John Locke (not modern)

Key ideas

1) society state and government are based on a voluntary agreement or social contracts
2) government should be limited and based on consent from below


John Locke

Believe that government derives its legitimacy from .. and should..?

People should accept?

The government should protect ? And tolerate?

Lockes philosophy is based on ?

HOWEVER.. locke is not a modern liberal because

The people, and should govern in accordance to their natural rights

The authority of the government

Property rights ... religious matters not interfere


Refers to ‘people’ as wealthy land owners not real people


Mary Wollstonecraft, type of liberal?

Key ideas

uses ?

1) women are rational independent beings capable of reason
2) in order to be free women should enjoy full liberties and the opportunity to pursue a career
human nature/state/society


Mary Wollstonecraft

What is formal equality ?

What did she value as an institution ?
But they must be?

Why were there limits on her ambitions for women ?

But argued even tho biology ??

All individuals have the same legal and political rights in society

Equals in partnership no tyranny

The period in which she lived

A career was no less virtuous just aimed for equality if opportunity


John Stuart Mill

Key ideas

1) individuals should be free to do anything expect harm others
2) it is important to tolerate behaviours or ideas that are different from ones own

human nature/state/society


John Stuart Mill

Was which branch of liberal?

Championed the ? advocated?

What did he believe about the government ? Only entitled to?

What did he believe about tax?

He was a son of ?


Harm principle

That they had no business interfering ... restrict behaviour that affected freedom of others …. negative freedom

Should be a single tax rate ‘flat tax’



John Rawls

Key ideas
what type of liberal?

1) society must be just and guarantee each citizen a life worth living
2) a fair society is one in which the difference in outcomes for the richest and the poorest is kept to a minimum


John Rawls

What did Rawls accept ?

What did Rawls envisage?(2)

What did Rawls argue would happen in this circumstance ?

What did Rawls reject ?(2)

That there would always be a degree of inequality

-original position
-veil of ignorance
People would value the importance of equal rights allowing as much freedom as possible

Communism and unregulated capitalism


Betty Friedan

Key ideas

1) women are as capable as men and oppressive laws and social views must be rejected
2) women are held back from fulfilling this potential by unfair ideas about the kind of employment they can take up


Betty Friedan

What was her belief about biology and women?

Reinforced by ?

Why was she a liberal?

That is was conditioning not vilify that Lead women to become wives and homemakers

Schools family and social cultural and religious influences

Because she wanted to make reforms within the existing structure


what are liberals features?

-state 'necessary evil'


classical liberals? (4)

-negative freedom
-no welfare-reliance
-state protect property rights
-lassiez faire economy


modern liberals?(4)

-positive freedom
-welfare system
-collective action
-against free-market capitalism, Keynesian


both classic/modern liberals believe that the state?(3)

-private property natural right
-compliments individualism, self-striving
-seen to benefit everyone (optimism)