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Flashcards in Thinkers Social Deck (12)
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Karl Marx

Key ideas
uses ?

1) social class is central to socialism
2) human nature is socially determined and can only be expressed under communism

social class/human nature


Karl Marx

What are the three elements to Marxism?

What are they?

When do these three conditions not exist ?

- historical materialism (form of society determined by economic system )
- dialectical change (development that occurs through conflict of opposing forces)
- class consciousness

Under capitalism


Beatrice Webb

Key ideas

1) the inevitability of gradualness establishing socialism peacefully by passing democratic reforms through existing institutions
2) the expansion of the state will deliver socialism

human nature/state/society


Beatrice Webb

How does she think socialism will happen?

What did Webb reject?

What did she describe the average voter as? Therefore she ?
She argued for what to be expanded ?

Rich people will see that it’s a good idea

Marxist theory of class struggle

Limited selfish and uninformed
Rejected direct democracy

The state


Rosa luxemburg

Key ideas
what type of socialist ?

uses ?

1) evolutionary socialism is not possible as capitalism is based on economic exploitation
2) struggle by the proletariat created the class consciousness needed to overthrow capitalist state
economy/human nature


Rosa luxemburg

What did Rosa critique ? Which was?

What did she argue would happen if evolutionary Socialist strategy ?

What did she argue would happen?

Why the need for class consciousness ?

Revisionism of Marx’s ideas

Leave capitalist system in fact and would loose their sense of political purpose

Capitalism run out of things to exploit system would collapse

A strike then radical socialist revolution


Antony crosland

Key ideas

what type of socialist?

1) the inherent contradictions in capitalism
2) state managed capitalism

social democrat


Antony crosland

He was a post war revisionist? Had influence on ?

Which type of economics?

What did he say about modern socialism ?
What are his four justifications for equality ?

What did he want to get rid of ?

Revising Marx work / Labour Party


Lack of internal tensions to drive social change or bring about revolution

-economic efficiency
-communitarian society
-injustice if rewarding talents due to nature
-need for social justice ‘democratic equality ‘

Grammar schools


Anthony giddens

Key ideas

1) the third way a new political approach to social democracy
2) rejection of state intervention


Anthony giddens

Who’s favourite academic was he ?

What were his two key themes ?

What did he argue about top down state intervention ?

What did he stress the importance of ? (2)
What did he reject ?


-Rejection of state intervention acceptance of free marked emphasis on equality of opportunity
-the role of the state in social investment

Inefficient ineffective

Community and responsibility

State welfare as it was social engineering


Marxism, 2 features?

class is....

reject ?(2)

-common humanity

economically determined

-equality of opportunity/universal welfare doesn't remove capitalism


social democrats e.g.

reject? why

Antony Crossland, within capitalism

universal welfare
equality of outcome/absolute

impractical/ potentially destabilising