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Flashcards in Thoracic Deck (89)
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31

Describing the curves:
Location =
Direction =
# of fixed frontal plane lateral curves

Location = where in the spine
Direction = define by the CONVEX side of the lateral curve

32

C-curve:

-single lateral curve
-typically found in the thoracic spine

33

S-curve

-One primary curve w/ a second
-Secondary curve typically found in the thoracolumbar or lumbar region of the spine

34

What does the Cobb angle meausre

radiographic drawing that measures the MAGNITUDE of the lateral curve.

35

What is one postural deviation associated with scoliosis?

forward, bend test = shows raised side of thoracic cage

36

In a postural assessment checking for scoliosis, looking for: contralateral coupling (________________), spinous processes are usually rotated toward the side of ___________ (horizontal plane), and the ribs hump typically on the _________ side (frontal plane)

(lateral flexion and rotation)
rotated toward the side of CONCAVITY
convex

37

List 4 other common issues related to scoliosis:

1) breathing function
2) back pain
3) muscle imbalance
4) psychosocial issues

38

Interventions for scoliosis include:

1) Scoliosis brace (used to improve exaggerated curvature)
2) Spinal fusion

** depends on severity / PT should be considered

39

What are the effects of aging on the thoracic spine?

-degenerative changes
- loss of muslce mass and strength
- reduced compliance of the rib cage and ventilatory effectiveness
- imbalnce bone synthesis and resorption (osteoclasts break down bone fastser than osteoblasts can rebuild bone -osteoporosis, autoimmune disease)

40

True/False: The thoracic spine is the most rigid region of the spine?

True - because of ribs (protection of vital organs more important than spinal mobility)

41

In the thoracic spine region there is limited: __________ and __________.

lateral flexion and rotation

42

The facets of the intracervical and upper thoracic region are between:

horizontal and frontal planes
(favors the combination of axial rotation and lateral flexion kinematics)

43

The facets of the mid-thoracic region are:

near frontal plane
(favors lateral flexion, although not fully expressed b/c ribs splinting action)

44

The facets of the lumbar and lower thoracic region are:

near sagittal plane
(favors flexion and extension (and limit axial rotation)

45

True false: often times the side of dysfunction is the same as the side of pain.

False: Often times the side of dysfunction is opposite of the side of pain

46

Which ribs are considered atypical ribs?

ribs 1, 11, 12 and sometimes 10

47

During respiration, which ribs demonstrate a bucket handle movement?

lower

48

What are the 3 components of the sternum?

1) manubrium
2) body
3) xiphoid process

49

The sternum functions as a:

osseous protective plate for the heart

50

What is the manubriosternal joint?

junction b/n the manubrium and the body

51

Ribs 1-7 are _____ ribs. They articulare directly with the sternum through :

true
chondrosternal joints

52

Ribs 8-10 are _______ ribs. They are indirect with sternum through costal cartilages of the adjacent superior rib @ the ___________ joints.

false
Interchondral

53

Ribs 11 and 12 are ________ ribs. They have no anterior attachement

floating

54

Typical ribs are _-_

2-9

55

Typical ribs have a head that attaches to the V. body at the ________________ joint. With __ demifacets with crest between them.

costovertebral
2

56

Typical ribs have a neck that is _____ to the head

distal

57

Typical ribs have a tubercle that is distal to the neck and articulates with the transverse process at the ________________ joint.

costotransverse joint

58

At the costovertebral joint, convex rib facets are _________________facet of rib head (demifacets). The concave vertebral facet is _________________ facet of adjacent vertebra

superior/inferior
inferior/superior

59

The costotransverse joint has 10 pairs of joints (________) and convex rib tubercles (__________)

T1-T10
T1-T6

60

The concave facet on transverse process has T1-T6 in slight ________. and T7-T10 articular surface are flat permitting a _________ motion.

rotation
gliding