Thoracic Wall Flashcards Preview

LSS 1 - Thorax anatomy, Respiratory and Circulatory system > Thoracic Wall > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thoracic Wall Deck (39)
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1
Q

How many ribs are there?

A

12 pairs

2
Q

How many are true ribs?

A

1-7 - reach the sternum

3
Q

How many are false ribs?

A

8-10 - reach costal cartilage above 11-12 are floating

4
Q

Where are the articulations of the ribs?

A

With vertebral column via head and tubercle (articular facets) With sternum - costal cartilage

5
Q

How many thoracic vertebrae?

A

12 - each rib joined to one vertebra

6
Q

Where is the sternum?

A

Anterior of the heart

7
Q

How is the sternum made up?

A

**** Jugular notch **** 3 parts: Manubrium, Body and Xiphoid process (xiphisternum) **** Sternal angle **** (important landmark)

8
Q

Which ribs attach to the Manubrium?

A

1st costal cartilages

9
Q

Which ribs attach to the sternal angle?

A

2nd costal cartilage

10
Q

Which ribs attach to the body of the sternum?

A

3-7th

11
Q

Where do the 8-10th ribs attach?

A

To the cartilage above

12
Q

What is the costal margin?

A

Outline of cartilage where the diaphragm is attached - the bottom most bit of ribcage

13
Q

Why is the sternal angle important?

A

Landmark for 2nd ribs

14
Q

What are the contents of the thoracic inlet?

A

Great vessels heading for neck and upper limbs - common carotid, internal jugular and subclavian Oesophagus, trachea, nerves, lymphatics

15
Q

What is the thoracic inlet formed from?

A

1st ribs, T1, Manubrium

16
Q

Where is the major capacity for thorax expansion?

A

Lower parts of thorax

17
Q

What is the diaphragm?

A

Formed from flat central tendon, with muscle radiating to costal margin and vertebrae

18
Q

How does the diaphragm function?

A

Dome flattens, ^ vertical diameter of chest Pulls costal margin up to ^ transverse and anteroposterior diameter

19
Q

What is the secondary role of the intercostals?

A

Stiffen the chest wall, improve efficiency of breathing movements

20
Q

How many layers of intercostal muscles are there?

A

3: external, internal, innermost

21
Q

What way are the EIM positioned?

A

Towards your pockets (/// on RHS) - from lower border of rib above, to rib below

22
Q

Where and by what are EIM replaced?

A

By anterior intercostal membrane at costo-chondral junction (rib-cartilage)

23
Q

What way are IIM positioned?

A

Towards back pockets (/// on LHS) - attachments anteriorly at sternum from lowerb order of rib above to rib below - replaced by membrane posteriorly

24
Q

What way are IM arranged?

A

Like plywood - with EIM and IIM forming right angles against each other

25
Q

How many intercostal nerves?

A

11 pairs - T1-11 (1 subcostal - T12) - have both motor and sensory functions

26
Q

Where do the intercostal nerves supply?

A

Intercostal spaces - lateral cutaneous branch(ant (both medial and lateral) and post)

27
Q

How is the vasculature arranged in the intercostals?

A

Arranged in neurovascular bundles - running just below rib deep into internal intercostal

28
Q

What are the implications of the neurovascular bundles IM, when a chest drain is needed?

A

A space where no nerves are present is needed - Safe area/triangle!

29
Q

Where is the safe triangle?

A

5th intercostal space ant to mid axillary line Ant. border of latissimus dorsi, lateral border of pectoralis major, line superior to nipple and apex below axilla

30
Q

Where does each IC artery anastamose?

A

At the end of the intercostal space - so either posterior (in front of vertebrae) or anterior (behind sternum)

31
Q

What does anastamose mean?

A

Joining of vessels that supply the same area e.g.: IC artery joins with a major artery (aorta) at end of IC space

32
Q

Where do the IC nerves come from?

A

ONLY from spinal cord

33
Q

What vessels supply blood to the thorax?

A

Subclavian artery supplies O2 by separating into internal thoracic artery (ITA) ITA separates into Anterior intercostal artery and musculophrenic artery

34
Q

What does the thoracic cavity contain?

A

Lungs - in each pleural cavity Mediastinum (between pleural cavities): Heart (pericardial sac), Great vessels, Oesophagus, Trachea, Thoracic duct and major lymph trunks, lymph nodes, Phrenic and vagus nerves

35
Q

Where does pec. major lie?

A

Begins at the top of humerus (intertubercular sulcus of humerus) Medial half of clavicle and anterior surface of sternum, first 7 cartilages

36
Q

What is the function of pec. major?

A

Adduction, medial rotation and flexion of humerus at shoulder joint

37
Q

What does adduction mean?

A

movement towards the mid-line of the body - also applies to movements inwards and across the body

38
Q

What are the structures with which the rib articulates?

A

Articular facets or tubercle - and on vertebrae called facets for articulation with head/tubercle

39
Q

Where is the scapula and what is it?

A

The shoulder blades - on shoulder towards back

Decks in LSS 1 - Thorax anatomy, Respiratory and Circulatory system Class (27):