Flashcards in Thrombosis Deck (22)
What is the purpose of the cardiovascular system?
To deliver blood nutrients and oxygen to the cells using blood.
What are arteries?
Passages that carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart
What are veins?
Passages that take blood back to the heart that contains less oxygen and more waste
What are capillaries?
small, thin blood vessels that connect the arteries and the veins that
Larger surface area allows distribution of oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and waste products.
Describe the pathway of the right heart.
Blood enters the right heart through veins and fills the right atrium
The atrium contracts and pushes the blood into the right ventricle
The ventricle contracts and the blood goes to pulmonary artery into the lung to be oxygenated, and returns to the heart through the pulmonary vein
Describe the pathway of the left heart.
The pulmonary veins empty oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium
The atrium contracts and pushes blood into the left ventricle
The ventricle contracts and blood leaves the aortic valve, into aorta and to the body.
Describe the tunica intima of the artery.
Inside most layer
has 3 layers
1: endothelium - the cells
2: sub endothelial layers
3: internal elastic membrane: for contracting and dilating
Describe the tunica media of the artery.
made of smooth muscle and elastic fibers
has external elastic membrane
Describe the tunica externa of the artery.
made of collagen fibers
vasa vasorum, nutrient gathering
What is the difference between the artery and vein anatomy?
The veins do not have elastic membranes (internal or external) for contracting of dilation
Describe the capillary anatomy.
endothelial cells inside
basement membrane outside
What is thrombosis?
the process of thrombus/thrombi formation
What is a thrombus?
a solid mass consisting of blood constituents within the blood vessel attached to the point of origin.
What three conditions cause thrombosis as describe by the founder of modern medicine?
Thrombosis is caused by:
1: endothelial injury
2: abnormal blood flow
Describe endothelial injury.
clots occur quickly
the endothelium is thromboresistant, any injury alters that
the sub-endothelium is exposed as a result of injury and promotes adhesion of fibrin and platelets (sub-endothelial layer is highly thrombogenic)
Describe abnormal blood flow.
when blood flow is congested and slows down, where platelets fall out to the periphery and stick to the endothelium
platelets are very adhesive
chronic venous congestion
aged and debilitated animals
congestive heart failure
Describe hyper coagulability.
Due to a genetic mutation:
increased levels of fibrinogen
prolonged bed rest
prosthetic cardiac valves
How are thrombi classified pathologically?
1: blood vessel location
lateral thrombus - one side of blood vessel
occluding thrombus - entire circumference
saddle thrombus - at a bifurcation
canalized thrombus - new blood channels through clot
2: infective agent
septic thrombus - contains bacteria
parasitic thrombus - contains parasites
aseptic thrombus - no bacteria or parasites
What is the fate of a thrombus?
organization and recanalization
What is histology?
study of micoscopic tissue structure
study of changes in tissues caused by disease
Uses stains to highlight tissue features
What is hematoxylin?
reduces to hematein
known as a counter stain