ToB S11 - Innate & Adaptive Immunity Flashcards Preview

Semester 1 > ToB S11 - Innate & Adaptive Immunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in ToB S11 - Innate & Adaptive Immunity Deck (8):
1

Define innate immunity

The non-specific immunity you are born with that comes into play immediately or within hours of an antigens appearance in the body

2

Define adaptive immunity

The antigen-specific response

3

Outline the differences between the innate and adaptive immunity

Innate

- Present from birth

- Non-specific

- Not enhanced by second exposure

- No memory

- Poorly effective without adaptive response

 

Adaptive

- Arises from exposure to microorganisms

- Specific pathogen immunity

- Enhanced by second exposure

- Acquires memory (memory cells)

- Poorly effective without the innate immune system

4

Outline complement

A cascade of blood soluble proteins that lead to the opsonisation of bacteria or the direct lysis of it by formation of the MAC complex

5

What are the humoral components of the innate immune system?

- Transferrin and lactoferrin - deprive microorganisms of iron

- Interferons - inhabit viral replication

- Lysozyme - Breaks down peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall

- Fibronectin - opsonises bacteria and promotes their phagocytosis

- Complement - Causes destruction of microorganisms directly or with the help of phagocytic cells

- TNF-α - Supresses viral replication and activates phagocytes

6

What are the cellular components of the innate immune system?

- Macrophages and monocytes - Phagocytosis and antigen presentation to lymphocytes

- Neutrophils - phagocytic and anti-bacterial

- Eosinophils - anti-parasite and allergic response

- Basophils and mast cells - allergic response

Natural killer cells - recognise and kill abnormal cells Eg tumour cells

7

What are the humoral components of the adaptive immune system?

- Cytokine - promote the differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes

- Perforin - Released by T killer cells that destroy cell walls

- Antibodies - Protect host by neutralisation (prevents binding to epithelia), opsonisation and complement activation

8

What are the cellular components of the adaptive immune response?

T Cell - T helper and T killer cells

T helper - Becomes activated when the CD4 binds to a specific antigen on the MHC/antigen complex of an APC (Antigen presenting cell). Once activated, it clones itself to form active T-helper cells and T-memory cells

T-Killer cells - release perforin when the cell is already infected

B-cell - divide to form plasma cells and memory cells when activated by T-helper cells and release cytokines. Plasma cells produce specific immunoglobulin for non-self antigen