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What is differentiation?

it is the process by which a cell develops more specialized functions by expressing the genes characteristic for that type of cell


What are somatic cells?

These are non-sex cells (e.g. muscle, skin, bone, blood etc.) They have 2 sets of chromosomes(diploid) and divide by mitosis


What are germline cells?

¬they are diploid cells that can divide by mitosis to produce more germline cells or by meiosis to produce haploid gametes.
¬ Mutations in germline cells are passed onto the offspring


Name two examples of somatic cells and give their function.

1. epithelial cells cover the body surface and line body cavities
2.muscle cells form muscle tissue
3.nerve cells form nervous tissue
4.blood, bone and cartilage cells form connective tissue


Name the two different types of stem cells.

Embryonic & Adult (Tissue)


What are stem cells?

They are unspecialised cells that can divide to form more stem cells


What are embryonic stem cells?

They are found in a very early embryo, they can differentiate into any cell type. This is because most of their genes are still switched on. (Pluripotent)


What are adult(tissue) stem cells?

Cells that can only produce a limited range of cell types. Stem cells in the bone marrow can only produce blood cells. (Multipotent)


Name 3 therapeutic uses of stem cells

1. bone marrow transplants grafts for burns
3.corneal transplant


What is a tumour?

An abnormal mass of cells


How is a secondary tomour formed?

if the cancer cells fail to attach to each other, they can spread throughout the body.


Why do cancer cells divide rapidly?

As they do not respond to signals that regulate them.