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Flashcards in Topic 5 Deck (13)
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1

What is a genome?

a genome is the complete DNA of an organism

2

What is bioinformatics?

is when computers are used to analyse the sequence of bases in DNA and the sequences of amino acids in protein

3

In bioinformatics, what do the computers look for?

coding sequences to known genes, start sequences or sequences lacking stop codons.

4

What is systematics?

it compares the human genome of the genomes of other species, this provides info on evolutionary relationships and the origins of related species.

5

What is pharma-genetics?

is the study of the effects of pharmaceutical drugs on the genetically diverse members of the human population.

6

What is PCR?

the polymerase chain reaction is a technique for the amplification of DNA in vitro

7

What 3 things must be present for PCR?

many of the 4 free nucleotides of DNA, primers & DNA polyermase

8

Why are primers needed for PCR?

primers are complementary to specific targets sequences at the 2 ends of the region to be amplified.

9

What happens in the 1st stage of PCR?

DNA is heated in order to separate the 2 strands (breaking H bonds) - this is called denaturing (95)

10

What happens in the 2nd stage of PCR?

The DNA is then cooled, this allows primers to bind to complementary target sequences - this is called annealing.

11

What happens in the 3rd stage of PCR?

Heat tolerant DNA polymerase then replicates the region of the DNA using the primer as a starting point.

12

What are DNA probes used for?

to detect the presence of specific DNA bases in a sample of DNA,they can be used to determine the father,to detect single gene mutations.

13

What is a DNA probe?

a short, single stranded man made fragment of DNA that is complementary to the specific sequence of DNA bases that are being tested for.