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Flashcards in Topic 4 Deck (13)
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Name 4 types of protein.

Enzymes,Structural, Hormones, Antibodies, Hemoglobin


What is an organisms phenotype determined by?

by the proteins produced as a result of gens being expressed (switched on)


What is a single gene mutation?

they happen when the order of the bases in the DNA that a gene is made of is altered


What are the 3 types of single gene mutations?

Substitution, Insertion & Deletion


What will insertion and deletion mutations result in?

frameshift mutations


What are frameshift mutations?

when a base is inserted or deleted, every codon after where the mutation has occurred will be altered during transcription.


What is a missense mutation?

where one amino acid codon is replaced with another different codon, only one amino acid will be changed.


What is a nonsense mutation?

where one amino acid codon is replaced with a premature stop codon and the polypeptide chain will be shorter than it should be.


What is a slice-site mutation?

where introns are not removed for the primary RNA transcript, it results in the production of a protein that does not function properly.


What are the 3 types of chromosome mutations?

Deletion, Duplication & Translocation


What is a chromosomal deletion mutation?

the loss of a segment of a chromosome


What is a chromosomal duplication mutation?

the repetition of a segment of a chromosome


What is a chromosomal trans-location mutation?

when a section of one chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to another chromosome that is not its homologous partner