Topic 1: Data, Information & Knowledge Flashcards
What is data?
Data is raw facts and figures or a set of values, measurements or records of transactions.
What is information?
Information is processed data. It has a context and meaning.
What is knowledge?
Knowledge is derived by applying rules to information.
What are two advantages of encoding data?
Data is stored in a consistent format. Validation checks can be applied to ensure data is accurate as it is inputted. Faster to enter/type in. Search query is faster.
Give two examples of encoded data.
Airport codes LHR, LGW, SXF. Country codes GB, FR, DE. Height - tall, medium, small. A-Level grades A, B, C. Hair colour - black, brown, red, blonde. Restaurant review - 5-star to 1-star.
What are two problems with encoding data?
Coding sometimes involves subjective judgements (‘Value judgements’). For example, a restaurant could get a 5-star review, but another reviewer might give it only 2 stars.
Coding sometimes involves loss of information because categories are too coarse. For example, coding hair colour as ‘brown’ would include a wide range of shades from light to dark.
Why does encoding sometimes involve loss of information?
For example, two students score 98% and 80% in the same exam. Their final grades are both A. Hence, the information is lost that the first student scored higher than the second student.