Topic 9: Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 9: Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Deck (13):

What is one of the main conditions we are trying to prevent by offering a patient optimal nutrition?

  • starvation -metabolisation of own muscle


When are we required to intervene with an animals nutrition?

  • anorexia lasting longer than 3 days
  • serious underlying disease is present
  • large protein losses


What are the main considerations for nutrition?

  • Energy requirement – although a sick animal require less energy for exercise and basic metabolism, they will have an increased requirement due to stress and disease.
  • Type of food – sick animals often have a reduced desire to eat, therefore, it is important to make sure that any food they do eat is highly palatable, energy dense and stimulate the animals sense of smell.
  • Route of administration – Nutritional support can be by the enteral route or the parental route.


What is enteral feeding?

  • nutrition which makes use of GIT; directly into GIT


List different methods of enteral feeding

  • offering food
  • hand feeding
  • force feeding (placing directly in mouth)
  • syringe feeding
  • tube feeding


What is an enteral nasoesophageal tube?

  • placed in nose
  • relies on upper portion of GIT to be operating
  • Short term <5 days
  • liquid diet


What is an enteral oesophageal tube?

  • surgical placement into distal oesophagus thru skin
  • long term (months)
  • calorie dense diets may be used
  • can cause cellulitis if removed early
  • need anaesthesia for placement


What is an enteral gastrostomy/PEG tube?

  • long term (years)
  • placed surgically or percutaneously via endoscope (PEG) thru left abdominal wall
  • calorie dense diet
  • cannot be used in animals w/ primary gastric disease


What is an enteral enterostomy (duodenostomy or jejunostomy) tube?

  • long term
  • cannot be maintained at home, patient must be hospitalised
  • used when stomach or duodenum must be bypassed, or pancreatic disease
  • inserted into SI via surgical laparotomy
  • small bore tube
  • constant rate of infusion of nutrition


What is parenteral nutrition?

  • given directly into the circulation through intravenous access.
  • An indwelling catheter can be placed either central i.e. through the jugular or peripheral i.e. through the cephalic/saphenous vein.


Indications for parenteral nutrition?

  • protracted vomiting
  • acute pancreatitis
  • severe malabsorptive disorders
  • severe ileus.


Problems w/ parenteral nutrition?

  • expensive
  • requires strict asepsis
  • needs careful monitoring of blood glucose levels. 


What does a parenteral nutrition formula contain?

Parental nutrition usually contains a formulation of dextrose, amino acids and lipids, vitamins and minerals for IV delivery.