What is one of the main conditions we are trying to prevent by offering a patient optimal nutrition?
- starvation -metabolisation of own muscle
When are we required to intervene with an animals nutrition?
- anorexia lasting longer than 3 days
- serious underlying disease is present
- large protein losses
What are the main considerations for nutrition?
Energy requirement – although a sick animal require less energy for exercise and basic metabolism, they will have an increased requirement due to stress and disease.
Type of food – sick animals often have a reduced desire to eat, therefore, it is important to make sure that any food they do eat is highly palatable, energy dense and stimulate the animals sense of smell.
Route of administration – Nutritional support can be by the enteral route or the parental route.
What is enteral feeding?
- nutrition which makes use of GIT; directly into GIT
List different methods of enteral feeding
- offering food
- hand feeding
- force feeding (placing directly in mouth)
- syringe feeding
- tube feeding
What is an enteral nasoesophageal tube?
- placed in nose
- relies on upper portion of GIT to be operating
- Short term <5 days
- liquid diet
What is an enteral oesophageal tube?
- surgical placement into distal oesophagus thru skin
- long term (months)
- calorie dense diets may be used
- can cause cellulitis if removed early
- need anaesthesia for placement
What is an enteral gastrostomy/PEG tube?
- long term (years)
- placed surgically or percutaneously via endoscope (PEG) thru left abdominal wall
- calorie dense diet
- cannot be used in animals w/ primary gastric disease
What is an enteral enterostomy (duodenostomy or jejunostomy) tube?
- long term
- cannot be maintained at home, patient must be hospitalised
- used when stomach or duodenum must be bypassed, or pancreatic disease
- inserted into SI via surgical laparotomy
- small bore tube
- constant rate of infusion of nutrition
What is parenteral nutrition?
- given directly into the circulation through intravenous access.
- An indwelling catheter can be placed either central i.e. through the jugular or peripheral i.e. through the cephalic/saphenous vein.
Indications for parenteral nutrition?
- protracted vomiting
- acute pancreatitis
- severe malabsorptive disorders
- severe ileus.
Problems w/ parenteral nutrition?
- requires strict asepsis
- needs careful monitoring of blood glucose levels.
What does a parenteral nutrition formula contain?
Parental nutrition usually contains a formulation of dextrose, amino acids and lipids, vitamins and minerals for IV delivery.