Topic 12: Providing First Aid Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 12: Providing First Aid Deck (36):
1

What are the aims of first aid?

  • save      life
  • prevent     further injury
  • reduce      pain
  • reduce      stress
  • reduce      chance of infection
  • increase      the rate of recovery

2

What are the priorities when dealing with an emergency case?

  • minimise the danger to yourself and further damage to the patient
  • assess and respond to any problems with the patient’s airway, breathing, circulation or bleeding
  • restrain or confine the patient to prevent further injury
  • identify and treat shock
  • assess patient’s injuries
  • treat ife-threatening injuries or symptoms first, attend to other problems according to their degree of urgency
  • seek further help - call the vet!

3

What does DRABC stand for?

  • D = Danger   
    -
    Assess the situation 
  • R = Response  
    -Can the patient respond? 
  • A = Airway
    -
    Ensure the airway is clear so that the animal can breathe. 
  • B =Breathing   
    -Make sure the animal is breathing.
  • C =Circulation
    -Is the heart beating? Is there a pulse?  Check the animal’s mucous membrane colour and capillary refill time (CRT). Check for haemorrhage.

4

Further to DRABC is DEF.
What does this stand for?

  • D = DISABILITY
    -
    Disability stands for any problem with the animal’s Neurological system.
  • E = EXAMINATION - EVERYTHING ELS
    -
    Once the vital signs have been assessed and acted upon, other problems can be assessed. Check the extent of the animal’s injuries
  • F = FOLLOW UP

5

Tips for handling injured patients?

  • Don't deliberately change the animal's position, even if lying on a broken leg. Animals tend to protect the injured area by lying on it. Also, the animal will put itself into the most comfortable position

6

What is the first aim of CPR?

What is the second aim of CPR?

  • 1. to preserve life
  • 2. Maintain circulation (oxygen delivery)

7

When must artificial respiration be given?

If animal is not breathing

8

Describe rescue breathing

  • compressing the chest. 
  • Place the animal into lateral recumbency, extend head and neck, extend tongue, pull front legs forward.
  • Compress chest with palm of hand behind the upper forelimb, or at highest point of chest.
  • Press, release, repeat every 1-2 seconds. Note: chest compressions are only a stop-gap measure as they will not deliver enough oxygen. Immediate veterinary attention is  required for further artificial ventilation

9

Describe mouth to nose respiration

  •  Extend the head and neck, pull the tongue forward, grasp muzzle, close  animal’s lips and blow into the animal’s nostrils.
  • Place slight pressure  on pharynx to prevent blowing down the oesophagus.

10

What does it mean to intubate and ventilate?

  •  done at the veterinary clinic.

  • A tube is placed into the trachea and the animal is artificially ventilated either manually by squeezing a rebreathing bag or by a ventilator machine.

11

How many minutes is a cardiac arrest emergency?
(ie how long before permanent brain damage occurs?)

3 minutes

12

List the symptoms of cardiac arrest

  • Unconscious
  • No heart beat
  • No pulse
  • Slow capillary refill time
  • Grey to bluish-purple coloured mucous membranes (cyanosis)
  • Fixed dilated pupils

13

Describe external cardiac compression procedure

  • Compress and release the chest to create pressure changes in the blood vessels, forcing blood to circulate.
  • Lay the animal on its right side
  • Place your hands where its left elbow touches the chest, approximately the middle of the rib-cage     
  • Compress the chest 15 times followed by 2 rescue breaths. Compress at a rate similar to the normal heart rate. (as a guide, compress 3 times every 2 seconds = 90 compressions per minute)
  • Monitor effectiveness - check the pulse, mucous membrane colour and capillary refill time

14

Cardiac compressions plus artificial respiration together is ...?

CPR

(CardioPulmonary Resuscitation)

15

What can basic first aid involve?

  • basic CPR
  • control of haemorrhage
  • treatment of lacerations or scratches,
  • bandaging for broken bones or limbs
  • and administration of medications under veterinary advice or instruction eg emetics or antidotes.

16

What is shock?

  • lack of circulation of oxygenated blood to the body tissues.
  • This leads to low oxygen levels in the tissues, build up of toxins, coma and death

17

What are the symptoms of shock?

  • Weak fast pulse, rapid heart rate
  • Shallow rapid respiration
  • Pale mm, slow CRT
  • Cold extremities
  • Lowered rectal temperature
  • Reduced urinary output

18

What are the causes of shock?

  • Haemorrhage
  • Head trauma
  • Poisoning
  • Heat stress
  • Near drowning
  • Electrocution
  • Severe burns
  • Dehydration
  • Prolonged vomiting/diarrhoea
  • Disease
  • Bloat
  • Heart failure
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Others

19

Describe the first aid management of shocl

  • Perform the ABC of first aid
  • Lay patient on its side, extend the neck and lower head
  • Control any haemorrhage
  • Apply Warmth
  • Seek veterinary attention - where the patient will receive intravenous fluids, oxygen and medication, and the cause treated.

20

What are the stages of wound healing?

  •  begins with an inflammation stage, where there is heat, redness, swelling and pain. 
  • Then new tissue is layed down, remodelled and reformed, starting at the edges and working inwards to fill the deficit and close the wound.
  • Scar tissue continues to be remodelled over time, but never quite gains the strength of original tissue.

21

What does wound healing require?

  • Moisture  – dry wound edges are more difficult to heal
  • Oxygen  and nutrients, with a good blood supply
  • Clean,  pathogen-free environment
  • Minimal movement
  • Prevention of self-harm – don’t allow the animal to rub, scratch, lick or chew at the wound

22

Caring for wounds involves?

  • flushing and cleaning
  • topical meds
  • applying dressings/bandages
  • providing a clean, stress free environment w/ excellent nutrition

23

What are the 3 layers of bandages?

  • Primary (contact) layer
  • Secondary (intermediate) absorbent layer
  • Tertiary (outer) – stabilizing layer

24

What does arterial haemorrhage look like?

blood is bright red and spurting. This is a major emergency

25

What does venous haemorrhage look like?

dark red blood. The rate of blood loss is slower, however a large volume of blood can be lost if not controlled.

26

What does capillary haemorrhage look like?

slow oozing of blood

27

What are the clinical signs of internal bleeding?

  • swelling in a cavity,
  • bruising,
  • mucous membrane pallor,
  • and perhaps coughing or breathing difficulties if internal bleeding is occurring within the thorax.

28

Describe how to control haemorrhage

  • Direct Pressure
  • Direct digital pressure (hand)
  • Pad/bandage over wound, bandage firmly in place
  • Must keep pressure for several minutes.
  • If blood continues to ooze through bandage, apply further padding/dressing over the top, do not  remove original bandage
  • Tourniquets are to be avoided.

29

Why are bandages used?

  • Protect wound from  environment
  • Prevent self trauma
  • Support for injuries      (+/- splint)
  • Control haemorrhage

30

List some different types of bandages

  • Basic wound covering
  • Splint
  • Compression bandage
  • Robert Jones bandage
  • Many others

31

Outline the steps for basic wound dressing

  1. Clean the wound, must be patted dry before bandaging
  2. 1st layer (contact layer) must be sterile and non-stick, non-fibrous, conform to wound shape, absorbent to allow drainage to next layer.
    Gauze pad often used
  3. 2nd layer (absorbent) wrap from toes or tail tip towards body. Apply several layers. cottonwool, softban
  4. Outer layer (porous adhesive tape) wrap from toes upwards. anchor at margins to skin/hair to stop slipping. vetwrap, elastoplast

32

Why are compression bandages used?

Name one type of compression bandage

  • exert pressure. They can be used to control haemorrhage, control or prevent swelling, and give support for fractures.
  • Robert Jones bandage -used to immobilise limbs eg fractures prior to surgical treatment.

33

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a compression bandage?

  • Advantages:

Soft, well tolerated

Easily removed allowing checking of  injuries

Useful for growing animals that grow out of rigid casts

  • Disadvantages:

Cumbersome

Expensive - use a lot of materials

34

What is a splint used for?

  • support of fractures/dislocations, sprains/strains, healing wounds
  • Provide immobilisation 
  •  

35

Bandages must be kept ....?

DRY!!!

36

Bandages should be checked regularly for?

  • Slippage
  • Chaffing/rubbing
  • Comfort of patient
  • Chewing/licking
  • Odour
  • Swelling (check toes)
  • Skin discolouration
  • Moisture