Topic 9: Nursing Animals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 9: Nursing Animals Deck (17):

Why would an animal be admitted to hospital?

for observation

for diagnosis

for treatment (medical and surgical)


What are some general responsibilities for nursing when caring for animals?
(in relation to bathing and grooming)

  • depending on condition, mental stimulation through toys, play, excersise and grooming assists recovery
  • Use padded absorbent bedding, move patient regularly so not laying in filth
  • Grooming is especially important for those who cannot groom themselves, particularly cats


Why is excersise important for a hospitalised patient (where possible)?

  • physical therapy
    -reduction of pain, prevention of muscle atrophy, improve coordination
  • Rehabilitation
  • mental stimulation
  • use of outside toileting


What is parenteral feeding?

  •  IV feeding
  • bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion
  • animal receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.


Why are IV fluids used?

  • correct fluid imbalances;

  • and maintain normal levels once restored.


What are the indications for fluid therapy?

  • Dehydration
  • Shock
  • Blood loss
  • Stress
  • Pre-emptive
  • To facilitate medication


Describe procedure to set up IVFT

prepare equipment: 

  • warm fluids to body temperature
  • have catheter of a suitable size for the animal (and a spare)
  • prepare giving set and other appropriate lines, extension set, etc.
  • check and double check fluid is correctly prescribed, in date, undamaged, and visually clear
  • prepare Fluid Pump if appropriate
  • connect up bag aseptically, clear air from line,
  • maintain sterility at all times
  • prepare for skin’s surgical prep
  • Insert the IV Catheter and attach the line
  • Tape the catheter to avoid It being pulled out
  • Flush with heparin-saline
  • Turn on fluids and adjust flow rate to suit patient
  • Secure the apparatus from patient interference


What is Phlebitis?

  • inflammation of the vessel wall as a result of damage to the endothelial lining of the vein. 
  • Phlebitis is characterised by swelling, tenderness upon palpation, and erythema of the skin over the vessel


What is thrombosis?

  •  formation of a clot from fibrin and platelets. 
  • Thrombosis can result from endothelial trauma at the points between the catheter and the vessel wall. 
  • Thrombosis is characterised by a vein the stands up without being held off and a thick cord-like feeling to the vein


What is a catheter embolism?

  • occurs when a fragment of catheter becomes free and enters the circulation and lodges in the heart or lungs. 
  • The catheter fragment results from a severing of the catheter.
  • A needle should never be reinserted into a catheter when the catheter is still in the vein.


What is fluid infiltration?

  • diffusion of fluids into the surrounding tissues of the vein.
  • Signs of infiltration are swelling and tenderness proximal to the vein.


What are the indications for oxygen supplementation?

Any disease or condition which causes cyanosis, anaemia, or hypoxaemia


What is the ideal concentration for O2 supplementation?

40-60% humidified


List the different methods of oxygen supplementation

  • Flow-by technique
  • Mask
  • Nasal cannula
  • Oxygen-rich environment (e.g. oxygen cage or tent)
  • Endotracheal tube (intubation) and positive pressure ventilation
  • Transtracheal catheter


What are some medical conditions that neonates are prone to?

  • Hypoxia
  • Hypothermia
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Infection – septicaemia, diarrhoea, pneumonia
  • Congenital defects


Some brief instructions on handling injured patients?

  • Don't deliberately change the animal's position, even if lying on a broken leg. Animals tend to protect the injured area by lying on it
  • If the patient has spinal injuries, never carry it in your arms - use a stretcher. 
  • Never muzzle a dog in respiratory distress


When should diabetic patients be given insulin?
(in relation to feeding)


other wise may result in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)