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Flashcards in FSE Exam Cheat Sheet Q's Deck (43):
1

*WHAT IS THE GENERAL FLUID RATE FOR A SHOCK PATIENT?

80 - 90ML/KG/HOUR

may need two catheters to administer

2

What is the shock rate for a dog?

90ml/kg/hr

A dog that weighs 20kg (20kgx90ml/kg/hr) would be given 1800ml in the first hour.

3

What is the shock rate for a cat?

60ml/kg/hr

thus the average 4kg cat would need to receive 240ml in the first hour (4kg x 60ml/kg/hr = 240ml/hr).

4

A typical maintenance fluid rate is?

60ml/kg/day or 2.5ml/kg/hr

5

maintenance fluid rate for a horse?

50ml/kg/day plus the ongoing losses.

6

Why is blood typing/matching vital in cats?

Cats have blood types of A, B and rarely AB.

If type A is given to a type B, the cat can suffer a fatal transfusion reaction.

If type B is given to a type A cat there will be a lesser reaction but the blood transfusion will be ineffective as the cells will be destroyed.

Without cross matching there is a 23% chance of a fatal transfusion reaction.

7

What are signs to observe when looking for pain?

animal's orientation in the cage
posture
level of movement
exercise tolerance and activity level
facial expression
attitude
vocalising
difficulty standing, walking, taking stairs, jumping, or getting up.
changes in urination and defecation habits
decreased grooming (especially in cats).

8

Common signs of pain in dogs?

Decreased social interaction
Anxious expression
Submissive behavior
Refusal to move
Whimpering
Howling
Growling
Guarding behavior
Aggression; biting
Decreased appetite
Self-mutilation (chewing)
Changes in posture

9

Common signs of pain in cats?

Reduced activity
Loss of appetite
Quiet/loss of curiosity
Changes in urinary/defecation habits
Hiding
Hissing or spitting
Lack of agility/jumping
Excessive licking/grooming
Stiff posture/gait
Guarding behavior
Stops grooming/matted fur
Tail flicking
Weight loss

10

What are opiods?

act centrally to reduce the perception of pain

11

What are NSAIDS?

act locally at the site of pain to reduce inflammation.

12

Describe opiod agonists

those that bind and stimulate opioid receptors in the CNS
VERY powerful and are most commonly used for ACUTE pain for a short period of time

eg morphine, methadone, pethadibe, fentanyl

associated with side effects
-bradycardia
-hypotension
-sedation
-resp. depression
-urinary retention
-vomiting
-defecation
-constipation

13

Describe opiod partial agonists

bind and stimulate some receptors, but bind, block and inhibit other receptors

side effects are reduced, although the level of pain relief is only moderate

work well for visceral pain

eg butorphanol (Torbugesic, Dolorex)

14

Describe opiod antagonists

bind, block and inhibit opioid receptors
used for treating agonist opioid overdoses.
eg Naloxone.

15

How do NSAIDS work?

act specifically at the site of pain or inflammation at the site of injury or disease NOT AT THE CNS

by interfering with prostaglandin production, which are chemicals made in response to inflammation.

BOTH pathways produce prostaglandins that promote inflammation, pain and fever, but ONLY COX-1, produces prostaglandins which protect the stomach lining and support platelet activity

Some NSAID’S inhibit BOTH COX 1 & COX 2, by blocking the COX 1 pathway we have the potential to damage stomach lining

16

A bit about Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (Corticosteroids)?

reduce inflammation by suppressing prostaglandin production, thereby providing analgesia
suppress the immune system and they also delay healing
should never be administered concurrently with NSAIDs

17

Signs of transfusion reaction?

Fever
Changes in heart rate and respiratory rate
Facial swelling
Tremors, agitation, urination
Vomiting
Maybe diarrhoea
Weakness
Collapse
Seizures

18

Signs of haemolytic reactions?

can be acute w/in mins, or delayed up to 21 days
Tachypnea
Salivation
Tachycardia
Weakness
Muscle tremors
Vomiting
Collapse
Haemoglobinaemia
Haemoglobinuria
Renal failure

19

What are the five stages of grief?

shock
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance.

20

What aims should you use when discussing euthanasia with a client?

tact
empathy
discretion
diplomacy

21

When should toy discuss body disposal options with the client?

BEFORE euthanasia

22

Describe procedure to set up IVFT

prepare equipment:

warm fluids to body temperature
have catheter of a suitable size for the animal (and a spare)
prepare giving set and other appropriate lines, extension set, etc.
check and double check fluid is correctly prescribed, in date, undamaged, and visually clear
prepare Fluid Pump if appropriate
connect up bag aseptically, clear air from line,
maintain sterility at all times
prepare for skin’s surgical prep
Insert the IV Catheter and attach the line
Tape the catheter to avoid It being pulled out
Flush with heparin-saline
Turn on fluids and adjust flow rate to suit patient
Secure the apparatus from patient interference

23

What is the ideal concentration for O2 supplementation?

40-60% humidified

24

at are some medical conditions that neonates are prone to?

Hypoxia
Hypothermia
Hypoglycaemia
Infection – septicaemia, diarrhoea, pneumonia
Congenital defects

25

What are the aims of first aid?

save life
prevent further injury
reduce pain
reduce stress
reduce chance of infection
increase the rate of recovery

26

What does DRABC stand for?

D = Danger
-Assess the situation
R = Response
-Can the patient respond?
A = Airway
-Ensure the airway is clear so that the animal can breathe.
B =Breathing
-Make sure the animal is breathing.
C =Circulation
-Is the heart beating? Is there a pulse? Check the animal’s mucous membrane colour and capillary refill time (CRT). Check for haemorrhage.

27

What is the first aim of CPR?

What is the second aim of CPR?

1. to preserve life
2. Maintain circulation (oxygen delivery)

28

How many minutes is a cardiac arrest emergency?
(ie how long before permanent brain damage occurs?)

3 minutes

29

List the symptoms of cardiac arrest

Unconscious
No heart beat
No pulse
Slow capillary refill time
Grey to bluish-purple coloured mucous membranes (cyanosis)
Fixed dilated pupils

30

Describe external cardiac compression procedure

Compress and release the chest to create pressure changes in the blood vessels, forcing blood to circulate.

Lay the animal on its right side

Place your hands where its left elbow touches the chest, approximately the middle of the rib-cage

Compress the chest 15 times followed by 2 rescue breaths. Compress at a rate similar to the normal heart rate. (as a guide, compress 3 times every 2 seconds = 90 compressions per minute)

Monitor effectiveness - check the pulse, mucous membrane colour and capillary refill time

31

Cardiac compressions plus artificial respiration together is ...?

CPR

(CardioPulmonary Resuscitation)

32

Describe the first aid management of shock

Perform the ABC of first aid
Lay patient on its side, extend the neck and lower head
Control any haemorrhage
Apply Warmth
Seek veterinary attention - where the patient will receive intravenous fluids, oxygen and medication, and the cause treated.

33

Outline the steps for basic wound dressing

Clean the wound, must be patted dry before bandaging

1st layer (contact layer) must be sterile and non-stick, non-fibrous, conform to wound shape, absorbent to allow drainage to next layer.
Gauze pad often used

2nd layer (absorbent) wrap from toes or tail tip towards body. Apply several layers. cottonwool, softban

Outer layer (porous adhesive tape) wrap from toes upwards. anchor at margins to skin/hair to stop slipping. vetwrap, elastoplast

34

Describe the technique for admin of IV injection

Safe restraint of animal with correct positioning
Shave site
Swab with antiseptic/alcohol
Remove all air from syringe
Raise vein – compress it proximally
can use heat in lab animals
Insert needle with bevel up
Draw back for flash of blood to double check you are in the vein
Release proximal compression
Inject slowly
When finished, withdraw needle quickly, apply pressure to site for 1 minute
Check that no haemorrhage occurs

35

DEscribe technique for IV catheter placement

Prepare all equipment prior to procedure
Safe restraint of animal with correct positioning
Shave site
Swab with antiseptic/alcohol
Raise vein – compress it proximally
Insert catheter into the skin over the vein at an angle of approx 30 degrees, with stylet bevel up
Look for flash of blood
Change angle to be more level with the angle of the vein
Advance catheter over the stylet along the direction of the vein, while proximal compression is released
Remove stylet
Look for flash of blood to double check you are still in the vein
Place catheter plug (injection port)
Tape catheter into position

36

What are colloids?

type of fluid
plasma expanders
consisting of plasma, whole blood and synthetic colloids eg dextran, gelatines
help w/ treatment of hypovolaemia and low BP
expensive
may cause anaphalaxis
associated w/ acute renal failure and bleeding disorders

37

What are the aims of fluid therapy?

Rehydrate (replace fluid deficits)

Maintain normal hydration

Replace lost blood volume

Provide oxygen carrying capacity

Replace essential electrolytes and nutrients

Act as a vehicle for continuous intravenous infusion of drugs

38

What fluid is typically used for maintenance?

hypotonic crystalloid such as 0.45% NaCl + 2.5% Glucose.

Maintenance fluids must provide the animal with its normal fluid intake, allow for normal losses of fluid from the body.

A typical maintenance rate is 60ml/kg/day or 2.5ml/kg/hr

39

What is the normal HR, RR and temp for a DOG?

HR 70-140 bpm
RR 10-30
Temp 38.3 - 39.2˚C

40

What is the normal HR, RR and temp for a CAT?

HR 100 - 200
RR 20 - 30
Temp 38.2 - 38.6

41

What is the normal HR, RR and temp for a HORSE?

HR 30 - 40
RR 12 - 20
Temp 37.2 - 38.9˚C

42

Surgical/ anaesthetic fluid rate?

Usually

43

Dehydration fluid rate = ?

Maintenance + Dehydration + ongoing losses