toxicities and side effects Flashcards Preview

Boards: Pharm and Biostats > toxicities and side effects > Flashcards

Flashcards in toxicities and side effects Deck (18):
1

acetaminophen antidote

give N-acetylcysteine. recall that tylenol toxicity is caused by damage from NAPQI, an acetaminophen metabolite. NAPQI depletes glutathione, the liver's natural antioxidant (and damages liver cells directly). N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione

2

tx for AChE inhibitor and organophosphate toxicity

atropine followed by pralidoxime (pralidoxime regenerates AChE faster if given early)

3

amphetamine antidote

NH4Cl acidifies the urine and traps amphetamines in it- increases elimination

4

antimuscarinic/anticholinergic antidote

give physostigmine salicylate, and control hyperthermia

5

benzodiazepine antidote

flumazenil

6

antidote for copper, arsenic, gold

penicillamine (chelator agent in this context)

7

antidote for cyanide poisoning

nitrite and thiosulfate; hydroxocobalamin.
these help convert cyanide to methemoglobin. hydroxocobalamin combines with cyanide to form a less toxic chemical. cyanide inhibits complex IV of the electron transport chain

8

heparin antidote

protamine sulfate binds to heparin and inactivates it

9

iron antidote

deferoxamine and deferasirox

10

lead antidote

EDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine. succimer is used in kids; EDTA and dimercaprol are first line treatments.
(remember lead poisoning: Lead lines on gingivae and metaphysis of long bones; encephalopathy and erythrocyte basophilic stippling; abdominal colic and sideroblastic anemia, foot and wrist Drop. )

11

mercury, arsenic, and gold antidote

dimercaporol

12

antidote for methanol, ethylene glycol

fomepizole (competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase)

13

antidote for methemoglobin

methylene blue, vitamin C
remember that methemoglobin has an incr. affinity for oxygen and can cause tissue hypoxia by holding on too tightly to it. happens under oxidative stress when Fe 2+ --> Fe3+. chocolate colored blood. methylene blue decreases helps reduce the Fe3+

14

opioid antidote

naloxone

15

sialicylate antidote

NaHCO3 to alkalize the urine

16

TCA antidote

NaHCO3 to alkalize the urine

17

tPA antidote

aminocaproic acid (a lysine analogue- inhibts tPA becasue tPA binds lysine residues)

18

warfarin antidote

vitamin K