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Flashcards in sympathomimetics Deck (16):
1

epinephrine: most affected receptors, applications

beta effects more important than alpha effects at low doses; alpha effects predominate at high doses. used for anaphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, asthma, and hypotension.

2

norepinephrine: affected receptors, applications

alpha 1> alpha2 > beta1. used for hypotension, but decreases renal perfusion

3

isoproterenol affected receptors, applications

beta receptor agonist. used to evaluate tachyarrhythmias, but can worsen ischemia

4

dopamine affected receptors, applications

D1=D2 > beta >alpha. used for unstable bradycardia, heart failure, shock. inotropic and chronotropic effects predominate at high doses.

5

dobutamine affected receptors, applications

B1 > B2, alpha. used for heart failure and cardiac stress tests

6

phenylephrine affected receptors, applications

alpha 1 > aplpha 2. used for hypotension, ocular procedures (mydriatic), rhinitis

7

albuterol affected receptors, applications

(salmeterol and terbutaline are like this too). Beta2 > beta 1. used for acute asthma.

8

terbutaline affected receptors, applications

like albuterol, B2> B1. used to prevent premature uterine contractions.

9

salmeterol affected receptors, applications

used for long term asthma/COPD control

10

amphetamine: mechanism and clinical application

indirect general agonist and reuptake inhibitor. it also releases stored catecholamines. good for narcolepsy, obestiy, and ADD

11

ephedrine affected receptors, applications

indirect general agonist. releases stored catecholamines. used for nasal deconsgestion and treatment of urinary incontinence and hypotension.

12

cocaine

indirect general agonist and reuptake inhibitor. it causes vasoconstriction and local anesthesia. NEVER give a beta blocker to someone with cocaine intoxication because of unopposed alpha-1 activation and extreme hypertension.

13

compare and contrast norepinephrine and isoproterenol: effects on BP, and HR, with explanation

NE is an agonist at alpha 1 > alpha 2 > beta 1 receptors. isoproterenol works on beta receptors. therefore, NE will cause increased blood pressure d/t alpha-mediated vasoconstriction. high pressures can cause bradycardia. Isoproterenol, on the other hand, causes beta-2 mediated vasodilation: decr. mean arterial pressure and incr. HR through beta 1 and reflex actity

14

clonidine

an alpha-2 agonist that acts as a sympatholytic. used for hypertensive urgency. doesn't decr. renal blood flow. also for ADHD, severe pain (off-label uses like ethanol and opioid withdrawal)

15

clonidine toxicity

CNS depression, bradycardia, hypotension, resp. depression, small pupil size

16

alpha-methyldopa

used for HTN in pregancy and is safe in pregancy. it is an alpha 2 agonist/sympatholytic. toxicity: direct coombs positive hemolytic anemia and SLE-like syndrome