Give two criticisms of the UN security council
- Accused of failing to act
- Some countries undermine decisions by taking individual action
What sanctions can the UN apply?
- Diplomatic (ordering staff at a foreign embassy to go home)
- Military (ban weapon trade)
- Aims to make country negotiate without military action
- Requires unanimous vote but due to Russia/ USA tension often a gridlock so countries take individual action
Since 1980, the USA has acted outside of the UN (1) times including the (2) and (3) times with the UN e.g. (4)
1 - 10
2 - Gulf War
3 - 3
4 - Haiti intervention
How many are involved in ASEAN?
10 SE.Asian countries and 2 observers
Population of 650 million in 2018
What is the role of ASEAN?
- Quiet diplomacy hidden from public view to prevent conflict
- Discussion by consensus so members agree before moving forward
What is the superpower status of ASEAN?
-Global powerhouse and central union for cooperation, maintains global alliances and involved in numerous international affairs
What evidence is there of the ASEAN alliance today?
- Major partner of the Shanghai cooperation organisation for development of the Asian continent
- Effective in Asia, less influential globally
Describe the initial development of the EU
- Officially became EU in 1993 in the Netherlands
- Originally ‘Coal and Steel community’ 1951
- ‘European Economic Community’ 1958
- 28 member states
What is the role of the EU?
- Encourage federation and use of customs union and single currency
- Means of transferring labour and capital
- Enhance social, economic and territorial cohesion
What is the EU’s superpower status?
- 508 million
- largest value of nuclear weapons (more than US)
- $19.7 trillion GDP (22% of world’s economy)
What evidence is there of the EU’s alliance today?
- 751 members of European Parliament
- Proportionate to country’s population
IPCC stands for (1) set up in (2) and has every country in the world as a member, (3) are observer members with little influence
1 - International Panel on Climate Change
2 - 1988
3 - 152
What is the role of the IPCC?
- Provide information to policy makers
- Does not conduct research
- Policies must be comprehensive, balanced, open and transparent
What is the superpower status of the IPCC?
- international decision making
What is the evidence of the IPCC alliance today?
- last article included 830 authors from 80 countries selected to contribute
- most recent is 2000 pages
When was NAFTA set up and who are its members?
- Canada, Mexico and USA
- World’s largest free trade agreement
What is the role of NAFTA?
- Encourage economic activity
- Tarrifs phased out
When was Anzus set up and who are the members?
New Zealand and US security treaty
What is the role of Anzus?
- Military security
What is the superpower status of Anzus?
- protection to all member countries
- America is largest superpower
Give an example of Anzus in an alliance today
Alliance not acted upon
When was NATO set up
Initially 1949 but last added member in 1982
What is the role of NATO?
- Unify and strengthen western allies
- Safeguard freedom and security of members
What’s the superpower status of NATO?
- Strong military power not political or economic
What evidence is there of NATO’s alliance today?
- Active on peace and security internationally
- Military capacity to take crisis management operations alone