How can I country gain or maintain power?
Hard (overt) power
Soft (covert) power
What is hard power?
Influence through force or coercion likely to involve military power and/ or economic sanctions
Give two examples of hard power
- Britain’s expansionist policy during the Imperial era
* Economic sanctions against Iran to prevent its military nuclear capability
What is soft power?
Exerting influence through persuasion based on cultural power
Devised by political scientist Joseph Nye in 1990 described as ‘cultural hegemony’ by Marxist Antonio Gramsci and maintained by Mussolini during his time in power
To establish leadership through political and/ or cultural practises
Give an example of covert power
Dominance of the USA through TNCs e.g. McDonalds serves 68 million customers a day across the world in 120 countries
What are the three main feature of covert power?
Historical or political values
Diplomacy or foreign policies