Flashcards in Treaty of Versailles Deck (39):
what does BRAT stand for?
- R eparations
article for blame?
article 231: war guilt clause
point 1: blame
germany had to accept blame for starting the war. this was viral because it provided justification for the other points she needed to fulfill
article for reparations
point 2: reparations
germany had to pay 6.6 billion pounds for the damage done during the war
point 3: army
-forbade submarines + air force
- army of 100,000 men
- six battleships
point 4: territory
-poland was given a ‚corridor‘ to the baltic sea which separated east prussia from germany
- alsace lorraine given back to france who had lost it in 1871
- danzig was now ruled by the LON
- all colonies were given to britain and france as ‚mandates‘
-eupen and malmedy were given to belgium
the name of the austria treaty?
name of hungary treaty?
reparations: saint germain
austria went bankrupt before reparations could be set
saint germain: terms?
- no navy
- no austro-hungaria
- tyrol lost 2 italy
- land given to czech and yugo
- only allowed three patrol boats
- 200 million gold crowns (hungary couldn‘t pay them so they were suspended)
- land given to czech and yugo
- army limited to 30,000
what did woodrow wilson want?
- self determination
- universal disarmament
- independent poland
- free trade between all countries
wilson wanted an overall peaceful figure
why did the USA want this?
- usa had joined later on in the war
- suffered no damage at home
- less emotional
what did davild lloyd george want?
- needed support of the public
- wanted to continue trading with germany
- wanted germany to be a barrier against communism
- britain had suffered massive casualties during the war
- wanted germany to keep saar coalfields for her economy
- expand british empire
- keep naval supremacy
george needed support, so he had to be harsh
„hang the kaiser“ „make germany pay“
what did clemenceau want?
- bring germany „to her knees“
- le tigre
- france had suffered the most damage
- needed reparations
- rhineland as a buffer region
was the treaty fair? SMR1870
- schlieffen plan
- mobilization of troops
- france and britain wanted revenge
- germany originally created the principle of reparations and had imposed them on france in 1870
why was it unfair?
- left with only half of her steel and coal industry
- 16% of coalfields were lost
- 10% of land was lost
- payments were around 5% of germanys national income
- was not allowed to negotiate terms
- economic crisis
what words did the germans use that described their reaction?
„dolchstoss“ „november criminals“ and „diktat“
german reaction! EADGFR
- economic crisis
- lost pride without armed forces
- other countries weren‘t disarming
- didn‘t accept guilt for starting the war
- many germans were now ruled by foreign countries
how many houses were destroyed in france and belgium?
when was the ceasefire signed?
11 november 1918 at 11am
how many countries came to paris to make treaties?
why was brest litovsk a cause for the TOV being harsh?
it took territory from russia
what did lloyd george say about the seating arrangement
„i was seated between jesus christ and napoleon“
what did wilson get and not get?
his league of nations
self determination for the peoples of eastern europe
- didn‘t get:
most of his fourteen points
senate refused to join the LON and sign the TOV - a huge embarassment for the man who promoted it so vigorously
georges clemenceau: what did he get and not get?
- reparations (but not enough
- small german army
- demilitarized rhineland
- alsace lorraine and german colonies
- saar coalfield
- germany split up into smaller countries to disperse power and the army even further
- harsher treaty with even higher reparations and a completely independent rhineland
david lloyd george: get and not get
- german colonies (expansion of british empire)
- small navy (maintained naval supremacya
- far too harsh, ruin germany
- thought it would cause another war in 25 years time
neuilly: country and terms
-lost land to greece (western thrace)
- now cut off from the aegean sea
- army reduced to 20,000
- reparations set at 90 million pounds
- gave land to greece
- lost territory in africa to britain and france
- army to 50,000
- allies were to control ottoman finances, like supervising the national budget
a revolution followed so the treaty of lausanne decided turkey should have an unlimited army, cancelled reparations and no land to greece
4 problems with self determination
- caused small wars like between the czechs and poles over teschen
- not allowed for germany
- created many weak countries which hitler could easily invade
- new nations had racial minorities
what had the war created?
the loss of human life and destruction caused intense bitterness and an unwillingness to compromise
countries all over the world were in debt
spanish flu epidemic
conditions in which a revolution could break out any time
what german colonies became british and french?
german east africa
german south-west africa
what happened when germans found out that britian would get their navy?
they scuttled their fleet
what happened in march 1920?
the kapp putsch
- staged a coup in the capital
- aimed to overthrow the weimar republic
other attempts to overthrow the democratic government included:
- munich beer hall putsch november 1923
- a right wing take over in the bavarian republic in may 1919
what was a positive outcome of the treaty of versailles?
the treaty of rapallo, signed in 16th april 1922
under its terms gave up all territorial and financial claims made in brest litovsk and the first world war.
also agreed to restore diplomatic relations and to cooperate in. spirit of mutual goodwill
what happened at the invasion of the ruhr?
a total of 600,00 french and belgian troops took control of all industries and railways to seize resources instead of the payment that was now overdue
this meant that germany began printing more money to compensate the loss of money caused by the occupation. this quickly led to inflation, and gradually led to hyperinflation