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Flashcards in TrueLearn ITE Deck (225):
1

1. What does Bupivacaine do to the heart?

a. Blocks sodium-gated channels which leads to delayed repolarization and arrhythmias

2

2. What is the effect of tobacco use on the oxyhemoblogin curve?

a. Shift left (decrease oxygen perfusion)

3

3. What is most effective treatment for neuraxial opioid-induced pruritus?

Nalbuphine

4

What causes persistent fetal circulation in neonate?

Acidosis and hypoxia which cause increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension and persistence of right to left shunt.

5

What is Milrinone's effect?

Increased inotropy and cardiac output while also decreasing pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance.

6

What is preferred pharmacologic treatment for atropine resistant bradycardia?

Epinephrine

7

What is second line pressor in septic shock, after Norepinephrine?

Epinephrine

8

A dot on the left of a MIGET graph represents what?

Pure shunt

9

What is key feature of MIGET graph for COPD/asthma?

No pure shunt

10

In bilateral carotid endarterectomy care must be taken with opioids, why?

Because carotid body denervation can happen. If it does central chemoreceptors solely respond to hypoxia and acidosis. Opioids blunt this and severe respiratory depression can occur.

11

How should bronchospasm be initially treated?

Hand ventilation with 100% FiO2 and deepening of anesthesia

12

What is mechanism of action of terbutaline? Effect?

Beta 2 agonist. Causes bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation

13

What is the primary effect of furosemide in the acute CHF?

Decreases venous resistance thereby decreasing mean systemic pressure

14

Redistribution of most anesthetic drugs occurs to where?

Skeletal muscle

15

What does hypothermia decrease?

Oxygen consumption, CO, respiratory effort, drug clearance, insulin secretion, clotting/platelet function, immune response, P50

16

How do you treat seizures in LAST (local anesthetic systemic toxicity)?

Benzos (Versed)

17

What is the hepatic arterial buffer response?

Hepatic artery vasodilation in response to reduced portal venous flow

18

What can happen after large bolus of dexmedetomidine?

Hypertension

19

A sharp rightward deflection of spirometry at end of pressure-volume loop is indicative of what?

Pulmonary overdistension

20

What two lung parameters are unchanged in obesity?

Closing capacity (volume at which small airways begin to close) and residual volume

21

What is the key unique physiology in patients with hypoplastic left heart palliated with the Fontan procedure?

Passive pulmonary blood flow

22

What are the 5 primary causes of hypoxemia?

Decreased PO2. Hypoventilation. V/Q mismatch. Impaired diffusion. Right to left shunt.

23

What are three reasons for increased incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in obstetric patients?

1. high incidence difficult airway 2. Lower gastric fluid pH 3. Increased intraabdominal pressure

24

Name 4 drugs with low hepatic extraction ratio

Diazepam. Methadone. Rocuronium. Thiopental.

25

What is the respiratory quotient?

Ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed during metabolism

26

What is the affect of Sch on lower esophageal sphincter tone in pregnancy?

It increased to tone and decreases risk of aspiration

27

What is the venous admixture equation? ("shunt equation")

Qs/Qt= CcO2-CaO2/Cc02-CvO2

28

Up until what post-conceptual age is it prudent to monitor a neonate overnight after general anesthesia?

60 weeks

29

Three requirements to prevent rebreathing in traditional circle circuit system?

1. A unidirectional valve must be positioned between the patient and both the inspiratory and expiratory limbs
2. Fresh gas flow cannot come into the circle system between the patient and the expiratory valve
3. The APL valve cannot be positioned between the patient and the inspiratory valve

30

What is the shortcut for calculating the volume of liquid volatile anesthetic consumed in one hour?

ml/hr=3*FGF(L/min)* % anesthetic vapor

31

What is the distance relationship between arterial line transducers and blood pressure?

10 cm change results in 7.5 mmHg change

32

What is Henry's Law?
Dalton/s Law?

Henry: Concentration of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure

Dalton: The total pressure of a gas is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gasses.

33

What's the quick way to approximate the volume remaining in an O2 tank?

3:1 rule. So if full, 2000 psi then about 625 L

34

At what serum levels does hypermagnesemia cause respiratory depression?

At what levels will QRS become widened?

15-20 mg/dL

(cardiac): 5-10 mg/dL

35

What are the effect of PEEP on hemodynamics? In systolic HF?

Increases Intrathoracic pressure thereby increasing right ventricular afterload. This decreases preload which can lead to hypotension in normovolemic without heart failure.

In heart failure preload is excessive. So PEEP improves CO and decreases LVEDP.

36

What are two side effects of Oxytocin?

Hypotension (vasodilation) and hyponatremia (hyponatremia 2/2 antidiuretic effect)

37

What is the most common complication of hyperbaric oxygen therapy?

Middle ear pressure equalization. (Pain, edema, bleeding, rupture)

38

What induction agent should be avoided in patients with history PONV?

Etomidate

39

What type of ETT with most likely prevent airway fire?

Aluminum (metal)

40

Why should paralytics be avoided in patients with anterior mediastinal mass?

Relaxation of skeletal muscle could lead to airway collapse.

41

Describe respiratory changes in pregnancy. Increase/decrease?

Decrease: TLC, FRC. VC unchanged. RR unchanged. All else (capacities and ventilation (ie: MV)) increased.

42

Patient with mitral regurg and pulmonary edema following inferior MI. First line treatment?

Sodium nitroprusside. As an arterial vasodilator it will decrease afterload and reduce regurgitant flow. Milrinone may also be a good choice.

43

Describe cardiovascular effects in NORMOTENSIVE morbidly obese patient

increased blood volume leading to increased CO and DECREASED SVR.

Note: eventually increase Angiotensin-Renin and sympathetic nervous system will lead in increase BP.

44

List risk factors for difficult bag-mask ventilation

BMI > 26
Beard
Age > 55
Edentulous
Snoring

Also Mallampati III-IV, limited mandibular protrusion, mouth opening < 3cm, TM distance < 6 cm

45

Vent settings for utilizing PPV

Controlled ventilation, TV > 7-8 ml/kg, no PEEP

46

In an adult what anesthetic is most common cause of perioperative anaphylaxis?

Rocuronium (neuromuscular blocking agents)

47

What factors decrease evoked potentials in neuromonitoring?

volatile anesthetics, nitrous oxide, anemia, ischemia, hypoxia

48

How is MH transmitted genetically? What is the diagnostic test?

Autosomal dominant.

CHCT. Caffeine/halothane contracture test. Muscle biopsy exposed to ryanodine receptor agonists (caffeine and halothane) and strength of contracture measured.

49

When should Metformin be discontinued preoperatively?

Acute renal failure or when acute renal insufficiency is high risk (contrast dye)

50

How does CO change during labor?

Increases 15% in latent labor, 30% in active labor, and 45% in expulsive phase.

Additional 10-25% increase with contractions

51

In a patient with emergency surgery and significant risk factors for aspiration, which medication (class and two examples) can be given for prophylaxis?

H2 receptor antagonists.

Ranitidine
Famotidine

52

What two factors cause shedding of endothelial glycocalyx?

ANP and hypervolemia

53

What physical characteristics affect respiration in neonates?

Pliable rib cage causing retractions
Lower lung compliance but increased chest wall compliance
Immature intercostal musculature
Less type 1 muscle in diaphragm

54

What are the 4 T's of the HIT scoring system?

1. Thrombocytopenia
2. Timing of reduced platelet count
3. Thrombus
4. oTher causes ruled out

55

In kids, what is the premedication dose of IM Ketamine?

2-5 mg/kg

56

What is the mechanism of action of Enoxaparin?

LMWH, inhibits Fator Xa

57

Which neuromuscular blocking agent is primarily eliminated by the kidney?

Pancuronium

58

What is the initial treatment for symptomatic sever hypermagnesemia? (hypotension)

Calcium gluconate or calcium chloride

59

What is treatment for SVT in WPW?

Procainamide

60

What class of medication must be avoided in pheochromocytoma?

Beta specific Beta-blockers (Metoprolol), Because unopposed alpha agonism will worsen hypertension

61

What are the side effects of Gabapentin?

Nausea
Sedation
Nystagmus
Ataxia
Peripheral Edema

62

What is induction agent of choice in acute intermittent porphyria?

Fentanyl

63

What are the 5 goals of anesthetic management of HCOM?

1. Reduce myocardial contractility
2. Maintain or increase SVR
3. Increase preload and CO
4. Maintain low-normal heart rate
5. Treat arrhythmia

64

What EKG change is characteristic for hypocalcemia?

Prolonged QT

65

What is mechanism of action of isoproterenol?

Non-selective beta-agonist

66

What blood product carries the lowest risk of TRALI?

PRBCs

67

What are the two groups of local anesthetics? How to remember this?

Aminoamides and aminoesters.

Aminoamides have two "I's":

Bupivacaine, Lidocaine, Mepivacaine

68

What is Lithium's effect of NDNBD's?

Potentiates paralytics by interfering with prejunctional neuron action potential transmission

69

What are three ways to manage intraoperative pulmonary hypertension?

Nitroglycerine (vasodilators), PDE-3 inhibitors, Nitrous Oxide

70

What is most commonly used epidural test dose?

3 ml of 1.5% Lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine

71

A complete injury to unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve would result in what vocal cord position?

Paramedian position of affected side (both adductor and abductor segments of nerve injured)

72

What are the ACC/AHA guidelines for days to wait for nonurgent surgery after stent placement?

PCA: 14 days
BMS: 30 days
DES: 365 days

73

What 6 parameters comprise the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI)?

1. Procedural Risk
2. Hx of CVA
3. Hx ischemic heart disease
4. Insulin dependent DM
5. CKD with Cr > 2.0
6. Hx of CHF

74

A disc herniation at L4-L5 affects what nerve?

L4

75

What are 5 common characteristics associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome?

1. ASD
2. Stenoic or atretic mitral and aortic valves
3. Hypoplastic left ventricle
4. hypoplastic ascending aorta
5. PDA

76

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is attenuated by what? (6 drugs)

1. Inhaled volatiles
2. ACE
3. ARBs
4. NO
5. PDE inhibitors
6. prostacyclin

77

What elements make up VACTERL association?

Vertebral abnormalities
imperforate Anus
Congenital heart disease
TracheoEsophogeal fistula
Renal abnormalities
Limb abnormalities

78

ESRD on dialysis, why is surgical hemostasis difficult?

Impaired platelet aggregation 2/2 uremia

79

What statistical term represents the accuracy with which a sample represents the population?

Standard error of the mean

80

What anesthetic agents must be avoided in carcinoid syndrome?

Agents that release Histamine (Succs, Mivacurium, Atracurium, Tubocurarine)

81

How does altitude affect volatile anesthetic delivery/

Delivered concentration is increased

Partial pressure is unchanged

82

What color nail polish is least likely to affect pulse ox?

Red

83

Volatile anesthetics attenuate what cerebral blood flow response most?

Perfusion pressure (autoregulation)

84

How much does cerebral metabolic rate decrease per decrease in temperature?

6-7% reduction per degree C reduction

85

What are general platelet cutoffs for surgery?

50,000 for general surgery

100,000 for neurosurgery

86

In patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy, what is general recommendation for delivery and anesthesia?

Vaginal delivery with epidural anesthesia

87

Postoperative pulmonary complications are likely to be reduced after smoking cessation of what duration?

4-8 weeks

88

What is ratio of TOF to % receptors blocked?

1 twitch indicates >90% suppression.
2 twitches indicate 80-90% suppression.
3 twitches indicate 70-80% suppression.
4 twitches indicate 65-75% suppression.

89

What T4:T1 TOF ratio is considered sufficient?

0.75

90

How is Rocuronium cleared?

30% renally. Clearned primarily by hepatic metabolism.

91

What is initial treatment of hemodynamically unstable or symptomatic SVT?

Synchronized cardioversion

92

What anesthetic considerations are associated with hypothyroidism?

Hyponatremia and hypoglycemia

93

One unit of cryoprecipitate contains how much fibrinogen?

200 mg

94

Name two ophthalmic blocks. Which one is better but more dangerous?

Retrobulbar and peribulbar.

Retrobulbar

95

What class of medication is milrinone?

PDE III inhibitor

96

What are the pharmacokinetic and dynamic changes of vecuronium in the elderly?

Same potency. Longer duration of action

97

What congenital cardiac abnormality is associated with pectus excavatum?

MVP

98

What are three neuro effects of propofol?

1. Decrease cerebral metabolic rate
2. Decreases cerebral O2 consumption
3. Decreases ICP

99

What are the axis for the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve?

X=PO2
Y=% Saturation

100

What are three ASA recommendations for reducing risk of airway fire?

1. Laser resistant tube
2. Low FiO2 as possible
3. Fill cuff with saline and methylene blue when feasible

101

What medication should be avoided in Thyroid storm?

Aspirin

102

What info do you need to know how much NO remains in an E-cylinder?

Weight and tare weight

103

Which nerve is spared with a brachial plexus block?

Intercostobrachial

104

What nerve and muscle pairing is responsible for vocal cord abduction?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve, posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

105

Name three unique considerations when using neuromuscular blockade in children?

1. Succs not routinely used except RSI
2. They require higher than normal weight-based doses
3. Hepatic or renally cleared drugs circulate longer in neonates

106

What anesthetic should be theoretically avoided in pancreatitis?

Propofol

107

What is chronic phenytoin use's effect on NMBA?

Duration of block is significantly shorter

108

What perioperative test is best at predicting acute renal failure in setting of suprarenal aortic cross clamping?

Creatinine Clearance

109

Meralgia parethetica is injury to what nerve?

Lateral femoral cutaneous

110

What muscle is the attachment point of the tongue to the mandible?

Genioglossus

111

What is magnesiums affect on NMBA?

Prolongs action

112

Describe metabolism of Etomidate. 3 points

1. Metabolized to inactive metabolites in liver
2. Excreted primarily by kidneys
3. Highly protein bound

113

What is statistical test to use to compare normally distributed data from more than two groups?

Analysis of variance

114

Why can clonidine be added to local anesthetic?

Increase duration of action

115

What is the reason for Fentanyl's quick onset and shorter duration of action as compared to Morphine?

More lipid soluble

116

Describe proper placement of an axillary roll

Oriented anterior-posterior and placed caudad to axilla

117

What would cause both a decrease in O2 demand and an increase in O2 delivery?

Decreased Heart Rate

118

What 5 elements are contained in cryoprecipitate?

Given prophylactically in patient with what hemophilia?

vWf
Fibrinogen
Fibronectin
Factor XIII
Factor XIII

Hemophilia A

119

Which aspiration prophylaxis medication has the longest duration of action and what is its class?

Omeprazole

Proton pump inhibitor

120

What is the ideal block for surgeries involving hand, wrist, and forearm?

Supraclavicular block

121

Of the "isomolar crystalloids" which has the highest osmolality and sodium concentration?

What is the sodium concentration?

0.9% NS

154

122

How does acetazolaminde treat acute mountain sickness?

Shifts to CO2-ventilatory response curve left

123

What four hormones does Somatostatin inhibit the release of?

1. Insulin
2. Glucagon
3. GH
4. TSH

124

FGF must be equal to what in a Mapleson A circuit to prevent rebreathing during spontaneous ventilation?

Minute Ventilation

125

What factors decrease statistical power? (4)

1. Increasing sample size
2. Increasing effect size
3. increasing alpha (p-value)
4. Reducing population variability

126

What is the triad of hepatopulmonary syndrome?

1. Intrapulmonary vascular dilation
2. Increased A-a gradient
3. Hepatic failure

127

What is increased in a closed circuit anesthetic technique?

PONV

128

IN awake patient with no mention of hemorrhage what is first line treatment for uterine relaxation for surgery on retained placenta?

Nitroglycerin

129

What is the formula to calculate the amount of Bicarb needed to correct acidosis?

0.2*Kg*base deficit

130

What s treatment of choice for prophylactic bleeding risk in patient with type 1 vXD

Desmopressin

131

Ongoing bleeding after cardiopulmonary bypass despite adequate reversal with Protamine is managed with what?

Platelets

132

What adjuvant medication is contraindicated in neuraxial anesthesia in obstetric patients due to risk of hypotension and sedation?

Clonidine

133

Decreased MA on TEG (thromboelatography) is indicative of what?

Platelet dysfunction

134

What are three goals of treatment of acute right heart failure?

1. Improving inotropy
2. Increasing pulmonary vasodilation
3. Diuresis

135

What are 5 absolute contraindication to TEE probe placement?

1. Perforation
2. Esophageal stricture
3. Masses
4. Diverticulum
5. Active bleeding

136

What classes of medication should be avoided in patients with glaucoma? 3

Meds that cause mydriasis (dilation).

1. Anticholinergic
2. Antihistamine
3. Corticosteroids (increase IOP)

137

What is the mechanism of local anesthetic toxicity?

Delayed repolarization of via action potential inhibition with binding of voltage-gated sodium channels.

138

In hypotensive trauma with TBI what are two acceptable fluids for resuscitation?

NS
hypertonic saline

139

What increases your risk of myalgia following succs?

Female. Not being very muscular. Being an adult, not pregnant, not at extremes of age.

140

What 4electrolyte abnormalities are manifest in Addison's?

Hyponatremia
Hypoglycemia
Hyperkalemia
Hypercalcemia

141

What anesthetic principle should be remembered for patients on Amiodarone?

Use as low FiO2 as possible to reduce risk of pulmonary fibrosis

142

Which is Glutamates role in the transmission of pain?

It is a stimulator

143

What is the correct pacemaker mode for patient s/p AV node ablation?

VVI

144

What are indications for hyperbaric Oxygen therapy following CO exposure? (6)

1. Pregnancy
2. Ischemia
3. Change in mental status
4. Coma
5. Seizure
6. CO level over 40%

145

What is the strongest predictor of postoperative mortality following liver transplant?

Hypoxemia (PaO2 <50)

146

What is the normal physiologic response to ECT?

Tonic clonic seizure leading to increase CBF with resultant parasympathetic response with bradycardia followed then by sympathetic surge with hypertension and tachycardia.

147

What is the cause of "fade" on TOF?

Binding of NMBD's to presynaptic receptors preventing reuptake of ACh resulting in depleted stored of ACh in the presynaptic motor nerve ending

148

How much negative pressure is required to expand fluid filled alveoli in a neonate and how long after life until FRC is normal?

40-60 cmH2O

20 minutes

149

How is amniotic embolism characterized? (Two stages, two events each stage and one other thing)

First stage:
Maternal pulmonary vasospasm with right heart strain/failure

Second stage:
Pulmonary edema with left heart failure.

Also maternal coagulopathy (consumptive)

150

What are two EKG characteristics of MAT (multifocal atrial tachycardia) and what disease processes is it associate with?

HR > 100
3+ different P-wave morphologies

Associated with pulmonary and cardiac pathologies especially those resulting in atrial distension and pulmonary HTN

151

What is the most appropriate use for a statistical t-test?

Comparing the means between two groups

152

What is the only opioid that has increased clearance in neonates as compared to older children and adults?

Remifentanil

153

Neuraxial anesthesia and it's affect on:

1. Second stage of labor
2. Mortality and morbidity
3. Rate of C-section

1. Prolongs
2. No change
3. No change

154

What is the leading cause of perioperative mortality in the morbidly obese patient?

DVT

155

What is correct maintenance choice in patient with prolonged QT?

TIVA

156

What is the half-life of plasma albumin?

3 weeks

157

How many time constraints is required for the concentration of a drug to decrease by 95%?

3

158

Why may nitrous be a bad idea in laparoscopic surgery?

Decreased surgical visualization

159

What are two effect of epinephrine additive to lidocaine in epidural anesthesia?

Increased density and duration of block.

160

Describe three characteristics of nocioceptive afferent nerve fibers

1. high threshold
2. A delta and C fibers
3. Unmyelinated

161

Rheumatoid arthritis causes instability to what joint by weakening what two ligaments?

1. Atlantoaxial joint
2. Transverse and alar ligaments

162

What is normal mixed venous oxygen tension?

40 mmHg

163

Sustained intraabdominal pressures greater than what define abdominal compartment syndrome?

20 mmHg

164

What blood pressure medication is associated with oligohydramnios and should be avoided in pregnancy?

Lisinopril

165

What EKG change is associated with hypocalcemia?

Prolonged QT

166

What is treatment for organophosphate poisoning?

Atropine

167

Which medication is useful for aspiration prophylaxis in emergencies due to its immediate onset?

Citric acid and sodium citrate

168

What is bolus dosing of Dantrolene in MH?

2.5 mg/kg

169

What is the mechanism of action of Metocloprmide in aspiration prophylaxias?

Increase LES tone and gastric emptying

170

What is one of the earliest signs of diabetic neuropathy?

Decreased HR variability and resting tachycardia

171

What are indications for platelet transfusion in MTP?

If ongoing bleeding less than 75K, if no bleeding if less than 50K.

172

What are the FDA approved indications for Dexmedetomidine ?

Sedation of non-intubated patients prior to and/or during surgical and other procedures

173

What two muscles are used as landmarks for placement of central line IJ?

Clavicular and sternal heads sternocleidomastoid muscle

174

Which electrolyte abnormality can precipitate Digoxin toxicity?

Hypokalemia

175

What are the signs of propofol infusion syndrome? (8)

1. Metabolic lactic acidosis
2. Cardiac failure
3. Renal failure
4. Rhabdomyolysis
5. Hypertriglyceridemia
6. Hyperkalemia
7. Hepatomegaly
8. Pancreatitis

176

How do you approximate a patient's blood volume?

70 ml/kg

177

What is treatment for Thyroid storm?

Propylthiouracil then iodide

Arrythmia treated with Beta blocker +/- Digoxin

178

What is nerve block of choice for post op pain in ACL repair?

Femoral nerve block

179

Vasopressin secretion is inhibited by what?

ANP

180

What are risk factors for cauda equine syndrome? (4)

1. Microcatheter
2. High local anesthetic concentration
3. Directing tip in dependent direction
4. Slow and low pressure injection

181

What is anticoagulation substitute in patient with HIT type II

Bivalirudin

182

Which muscle relaxant should be avoided in hyperthyroidism, why?

Pancuronium. May stimulate the sympathetic nervous system

183

Describe what products are mixed:

1. ABO typing
2. Crossmatching
3. Antibody screen

1. Recipient RBCs with commercial serum
2. Recipient serum with donor RBC
3. Recipient serum with commercial RBC

184

CNS depression secondary to anticholinergic meds can be reversed with what and why?

Physostigmine. It is an anticholinesterase that can cross the blood-brain barrier

185

What is the preferred cannulation technique for cardiopulmonary bypass?

Aortoatriocaval

186

In acute tubular necrosis, what is the expected FENa and UNa?

FENa: >1%
UNa > 40

187

Nitric oxide is used to treat what, how, and what is it's hematologic side effect?

Pulmonary HTN, pulmonary vasodilator, methemoglobinemia

188

Name indicated product in heparin resistance and TTP.

FFP

189

Name the three diagnoistic criteria for sepsis and what distinguishes septic shock?

1. RR greater than 22
2. AMS
3. Systolic BP less than 100

If volume resuscitated and still requiring pressors to keep MAP above 65 or lactate is greater than 2 they are in septic shock.

190

What antibody test is used to diagnose HIT?

Platelet factor 4

191

What are two most important factors in determining spread of spinal anesthesia when using isobaric solution?

Site of injection and total dose

192

What are common physiologic changes in brain dead organ donors? (6)

1. Myocardial dysfunction
2. Catecholamine storm
3. Pulmonary edema
4. Hyperglycemia
5. Pulmonary edema
6. Polyuria

193

Why does propofol cause hypotension (4)?

1. Decrease preload
2. Decrease afterload
3. Decrease cardiac function
4. Impair baroreceptor reflex

194

What two colloids are associated with coagulopathy?

Hydroxylethyl starch
Dextran

195

What is opioid's affect on seizure threshold?

Lowers it

196

What is the single best test for difficult intubation?

Upper lip bite test

197

At rest what is true of autonaumic nervous system differences between elderly and young patients?

At rest elderly have higher sympathetic tones and lower parasympathetic tones

198

Initital management of drowning, asphyxiation, choking

A-B-C. Start with breaths

199

How is blood flow to the urterus regulation

There is no autoregulation. It is all pressure dependent.

200

Local anesthetics block peripheral nerves by what mechanism?

Reversible binding the intracellular voltage-gated sodium channels.

201

Opioids are dosed based on what?

LBW

202

What is average vital capacity in 70 kg male?

5 L

203

Labetolol: Metabolism, lipid solubility, elimination half life

1. In Liver by oxidation and glucuronidation
2. Poorly lipid soluble (safe in pregnancy)
3. Half life is 6 hours

204

Awareness under anesthesia is more common in three types of procedure. What are the three?

1. Cardiac
2. Obstetric
3. Trauma

205

Ischemia reperfusion injury is thought to be caused by what?

Disruption of the sodium-potassium pumps secondary to decreased ATP and glycogen

206

What are the 4 elements of the Berlin criteria in the diagnosis of ARDS?

1. Timing: Acute, within one week
2. Bilateral opacities on CXR
3. Edema origin: Respiratory failure not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload
4. Oxygenation: (Mild) PaO2:FiO2 ratio less than 300 (and goes down from there)

207

What is PCXP in TRALI?

<18

208

What is common radiographic finding in croup (laringotraceobronchitis)?

Steeple sign (subglottic narrowing)

209

What is the best indicator of liver transplant graft function?

INR

210

Labor epidural anesthesia prolongs what stage of labor?

Stage II

211

What is hepatorenal syndrome type I?

Acute onset renal failure with doubling of baseline creatinine in the setting of cirrhosis and an inciting event (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, sepsis, surgery)

212

In which space is CSF in the spine?

Subarachnoid. Between arachnoid and pia mater

213

Spinal anesthesia may be an option for what age neonates?

Former premies at less than 60 weeks postconceptual age.

214

What is the general relationship between PaCO2 and EtCO2?

PaCO2 is generally 2-5 mmHg higher due to dead space

215

In local anesthetics, what is the affect of each of these:

1. Higher protein binding?
2. More lipid soluble?
3. Adding sodium bicarb

1. Longer duration of action
2. More potent
3. Quicker onset

216

What happens to CO in sepsis? In PE?

Increases. Decreases.

217

What is the effect ton blood lines in polycythemia vera. Bonus, what is the mutation?

Microcytic erythrocitosis
Leukocytosis
Thrombocytosis

JAK2

218

What receptor is bound by ipratropium to cause bronchodilation?

M3

219

Name three (random) conditions associated with MH

1. Central core disease
2. multi-minicore disease
3. Ken-Denborough syndrome

220

What is the order of local anesthetic potency?

Bupivacaine>ropivacaine>Lidocaine>Mepivacaine>Chloroprocaine

221

What fluids should be avoided in neurosurgery?

Fluids containing glucose

222

Name 3 classes of meds that antagonize NDNBDs

Anticonvulsant
Calcium
Steroids

223

What happens to blood gas acid/base status in pregnancy?

Slight respiratory alkalosis due to increase MV. This also slightly increase PO2. Also some metabolic acidosis compensation (decreased bicarb)

224

Where does the sciatic nerve lie in the popliteal fossa and what are its two division?

Lateral

Tibial
Common peroneal

225

What is first step for airway management in patient with trachea tear who is stable? Unstable?

Awake fiberoptic intubation.

Modified RSI