Unit 05: System Software: The operating system, utility programs, and file management Flashcards Preview

CIS*1000 > Unit 05: System Software: The operating system, utility programs, and file management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 05: System Software: The operating system, utility programs, and file management Deck (133)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

OS?

A

Operating system - a group of programs that control how the computer functions

2
Q

the 3 primary functions of OS?

A
  1. managing hardware
  2. managing the software
  3. managing tasks
3
Q

user interface?

A

the desktop, icons, and menus that let users communicate with the computer

4
Q

what is the 2 most common OS for desktops/laptops?

A
  1. Microsoft Windows

2. macOS - Apple

5
Q

can Microsoft run on all computing devices?

A

yes

6
Q

single-user/single-task OS?

A

OS’s that are designed for one person to perform one task at a time

7
Q

what do modern OS allow

A

multitasking instead of single-task

8
Q

What kind of OS are Windows and macOS?

A

multitasking OS’s

9
Q

what is the most popular OS for PC? (3)

A
  1. Microsoft windows
  2. Apple macOS
  3. Linux - open source
10
Q

what OS is used for Chromebook devices?

A

google’s chrome OS

11
Q

6 popular operating systems? developed by?

A
  1. windows - Microsoft
  2. mac OS - apple PC’s
  3. iOS - Apple tablets
  4. android - google
  5. Linux - open source
  6. Chrome OS - google
12
Q

utility program?

A

a small program that performs the general housekeeping tasks for a computer to help run it more efficiently

13
Q

Can a utility program stand alone?

A

yes

14
Q

mobile OS?

A

OS for smartphoens and tablets

15
Q

Android?

A

mobile OS for devices designed by Google and samsung

16
Q

iOS?

A

main OS for apple mobile devices

17
Q

Google Chrome OS?

A

a web-based OS that is only available on Chromebooks

18
Q

Linux?

A

a free open-source OS that is designed for PC and web server using

19
Q

is Linux a stable OS?

A

yes

20
Q

distributions/ditros?

A

Linux download packages

21
Q

kernel?

A

code that provides OS basic functionality

22
Q

does it matter what OS is on my computer?

A

yes most application software is OS-dependent

23
Q

Can I have multiple OS’s on one device?

A

yes

24
Q

OS update

a) windows
b) apple
c) android

A

a) delivers automatic OS updates
b) releases periodic new versions
c) update up to user discretion

25
Q

RTOS?

A

real-time operating system - an OS that allows machinery to perform a repetitive series of tasks in a given time

26
Q

2 examples of devices that require RTOS?

A
  1. pacemaker

2. anti-lock braking system in cars

27
Q

multiuser/network OS?

A

let multiple users access the computer system at once

28
Q

networks?

A

group of a computer connects to each other so they can share info and communicate

29
Q

server?

A

the computer that manages the network resources and communications

30
Q

3 examples of network OS?

A
  1. windows server
  2. Linux
  3. UNIX
31
Q

UNIX?

a) what is it
b) when was it developed
c) who developed it? (2)

A

a) a multiuser, multitasking network OS
b) 1969
c) Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie

32
Q

is UNIX code proprietary

A

it wasn’t but now it is

33
Q

what computer require multiuser OS? (2)

A
  1. mainframes

2. supercomputers

34
Q

examples of mainframe OS?

A
  1. UNX
  2. Linux on system z
  3. z/OS - IBM
35
Q

what OS does do supercomputers mainly use?

A

Linux

36
Q

OS analogy?

A

traffic conductor

37
Q

5 things OS does?

A
  1. provides a user interface
  2. manages hardware and peripherals
  3. provides consistent interaction between application and CPU
  4. manages memory and storage
  5. manages processor
38
Q

command-driven interface?

A

when the user enters commands to communicate with the computer system

39
Q

MS-DOS/DOS?

A

Microsoft Disk OS - an old OS that used to let users interact with their PC’s

40
Q

menu-driven interface?

A

when users choose commands from menus displayed on the screen

41
Q

GUI?

A

graphical user interface - display graphics and use point and click tech to establish commands in a more user-friendly manner

42
Q

what type of user interface is used currently by windows and macOS?

A

GUI

43
Q

GNOME and KDE are examples of

A

different Linux-based OS user interfaces

44
Q

why do OS’s manage CPU?

A

helps the CPU execute multiple tasks efficiently

45
Q

event?

A

an action the user inflicts on the hardware - mouse click/keystroke

46
Q

interrupt?

A

a command that informs OS of a higher priority task that requires immediate action -printing

47
Q

interruption handler?

A

a numerical code that prioritizes the requests

48
Q

where does the interruption handler put the request?

A

RAM

49
Q

preemptive multitasking?

A

when the OS runs tasks of higher priority over tasks of lower priority

50
Q

spooler?

A

a program that helps to coordinate all printed jobs being sent to a printer at once

51
Q

buffer?

A

the temporary storage in RAM that contains print requestion while the printer is still in use

52
Q

virtual memory?

A

the process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space

53
Q

swap file/page file?

A

a hard drive file where data that hasn’t been moved recently temporarily go in order to make space in RAM

54
Q

paging?

A

the act of swapping the files between the RAM and hard drive swap files

55
Q

thrashing?

A

the sluggish condition that occurs when there is excessive paging

56
Q

device driver?

A

facilitates communication between OS and peripheral device

57
Q

PnP?

A

plug and play - software and hardware standard design that installs the new hardware by including the drivers in the OS that are needed to allow the device to run

58
Q

API?

A

application programming interface - an interface that gives other programs the code needed for the CPU to recognize them

59
Q

natural language processing?

A

artificial intelligence that uses software to analyze, understand and generate human language naturally

60
Q

machine-learning?

A

AI that provides the computer with the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed

61
Q

boot process?

A

the process of loading the OOS into RAM when the computer is turned on

62
Q

the 4 steps of the boot process

A
  1. activating BIOS
  2. performing the POST
  3. loading the OS
  4. checking further configurations and customizations -
63
Q

BIOS?

A

basic input/output system - a program that manages data exchange between OS and input/output devices

64
Q

POST?

A

power-on self-test - checks to make sure essential peripheral devices are operational

65
Q

CMOS?

A

complementary metal-oxide semiconductor - a special kind of memory that uses basically no power

66
Q

system files?

A

the main OS files

67
Q

registry?

A

contains all the different configurations sed by the OSSS and other apps

68
Q

configurations?

A

settings

69
Q

authentication?

A

the verification of users login name and password

70
Q

what to do if the boot does work properly?

A
  1. power off then on
  2. uninstall recently installed software
  3. access windows advanced options menu - F8
  4. select “Reset this PC”
  5. revert past configurations - system recovery
71
Q

“Reset this PC”

A

a utility program in windows that attempts to diagnose and fix errors in system files

72
Q

desktop?

A

the primary working area of a users computer

73
Q

taskbar?

A

displays open and favourite apps for easy access

74
Q

where is the taskbar located in the windows?

A

at bottom of the desktop

75
Q

start menu

A

provides access to apps, setting, and power options

76
Q

pinning?

A

a process that fewer users choose which apps they wish to be tiled on the start menu

77
Q

Microsoft account?

A

a registered user profile to log into windows account from any device

78
Q

what is “snapping” windows

A

the act of fixing open programs into place on either the left or the right side of the screen

79
Q

virtual desktops?

A

allow the user to organize groups of windows into different displays

80
Q

macs “Docks” is similar to Windows what?

A

taskbar

81
Q

how integrated are all apple devices to each other?

A

very tightly

82
Q

Ubuntu?

A

a Linux user interface that is very similar to window and macOS

83
Q

file management?

A

provides and organizational structure to the computer’s contents

84
Q

hierarchical directory structure?

A

the way windows organize its content

85
Q

what is the hierarchical directory structure composed of? (5)

A
  1. drives
  2. libraries
  3. folder
  4. subfolder
  5. files
86
Q

3 types of storage drives?

A
  1. flash drive
  2. optical drive
  3. external hard drive
87
Q

rood directory?

A

large filing cabinet where all the files are stored

88
Q

file?

A

a collection of programs instructions/data that are stored and treated as a single unit in an OS

89
Q

folder?

A

a collection of files

90
Q

FIle explorer?

A

the main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the content of the computer for WIndows

91
Q

the 2 sections of file explorer

A
  1. navigation pane

2. file list

92
Q

navigation pane

a) location
b) which OS
c) what does it contain

A

a) left of the screen
b) windows
c)
1. files stored online in OneDrive
2. storage areas in PC - docs, music, pics, vids
3. quick access area

93
Q

file list?

A

on the eright where selected contents from navigation pane are located

94
Q

file path?

A

shows the location of a file

95
Q

music, pictures, videos are all examples of ____ in windows?

A

libraries

96
Q

path separator?

a) windows
b) macOS
c) Linux and UNIX

A

a) backslash - \
b) colon - :
c) forward slach - /

97
Q

the 2 ways to view/sort files?

A
  1. details view

2. icons view

98
Q

details view?

A

the most interactive view that displays file/folders in list form with additional file info displayed in columns alongside the file name

99
Q

icon view?

A

displays as live icons showing files/folders in sizes ranging from small to large

100
Q

which view is better if you have files/folders containing images or videos?

A

icon view

101
Q

live icons?

A

allow users to preview the actual contents of a specific folder without opening it

102
Q

C:\Documents\HIS182\Term Paper\Illustrations\ACarneigie.jpg

A - C:\ B - Documents\ C- HIS182\Term Paper\Illustrations\ D- ACarneigie. E- jpg

A
A - drive
B - primary folder
C - subfolders
D - filename
E - extension (file type)
103
Q

extension/file type?

A

identifies what kind of family of all the file belongs to or which app should be used to read the file

104
Q

which OS doesn’t require file extensions? (2)

A

Mac and Linux

105
Q

which OS does require file extensions? (1)

A

windows

106
Q

.xlsx?

A

workbook - excel

107
Q

.accdb?

A

database - access

108
Q

.pdf?

A

potable document formate - adobe reader

109
Q

.rtf?

A

text (rich text format)

110
Q

.html/.htm?

A

a hypertext markup language for web pages

111
Q

.jpg?

A

joint photographic expert group (JPEG) image

112
Q

.zip?

A

compressed files

113
Q

recycle Bin?

A

where files deleted from the hard drive side to be permanently deleted

114
Q

trash?

A

recycling bin for mac

115
Q

2 ways to recover permanently deleted files?

A
  1. access file history in windows and restore it

2. access cloud-based storage systems and see if it’s there because they are independent

116
Q

FarStone’s RestoreIT and Norton Online Backup are examples of what?

A

programs meant to retrieved permanently deleted files

117
Q

file compression utility?

A

a program built into windows meant to compress a group of files

118
Q

WinZip?

A

stand alone file compression utility program for windows

119
Q

Stufflt?

A

stand alone file compression utility program for windows and mac

120
Q

zipping a file?

A

the act of compressing a file

121
Q

dictionary?

A

a storage unit for repeated patterns fo letter and placeholder of catalogs

122
Q

algorithm?

A

set of instructions designed to complete a solution in a step by step manner

123
Q

how to restore compressed files?

A

Click “extract”

124
Q

utility program?

A

small apps that perform a special function on a computer

125
Q

5 utility programs available for windows

A
  1. disk clean up
  2. defragment and optimize drives
  3. task manager and resource monitor
  4. file history/recovery
  5. system restore
126
Q

clean up disk?

A

removes unneeded files from hard drive

127
Q

task manager?

A

check on programs and exit unresponsive programs

128
Q

force quit?

A

helps close out unresponsive apps for mac

129
Q

disk defragmentation?

A

organizes hard drive folder to allow faster access

130
Q

file history?

A

backs up important files

131
Q

system restore?

A

restores the system to a system restore point

132
Q

system restore point?

A

a previously stable state

133
Q

5 windows access tools?

A
  1. magnifier - magnifying glass
  2. narrator - reads out loud
  3. speech recognition
  4. on-screen keyboard
  5. high contrast - easier to see text