Unit 13: Behind the Scences: How the Interenet works Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 13: Behind the Scences: How the Interenet works Deck (85)
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1
Q

NSF?

A

national science foundation - a government entity that owns a piece of the internet

2
Q

who pays for the internet?

A

NSF through federal taxes

3
Q

5 major organizations in internet governance and development

A
  1. internet society
  2. IETF - internet engineering task force
  3. IAB - Internet architecture board
  4. ICANN - internet corporation for assigned names and numbers
  5. W3C - worldwide web consortium
4
Q

internet backbone?

A

the main paths of the internet, along which data travels the fastest

5
Q

ISP?

A

internet service provider

6
Q

OC line?

A

optical carrier line - high-speed fiber-optic line

7
Q

name and speed of fastest OC line

A

OC-3840 - 200 Gbs

8
Q

T line?

A

a line that initially connects the backbone and ISPs, carrying data over twisted-pair wires

9
Q

IXP?

A

internet exchange point - reduce cost and improve speed and efficiency for data exchange due to being made up of multiple network switches

10
Q

network switch?

A

devices that send data on a specific route through a network

11
Q

client/server model?

A

most common internet communications model followed to allows for network communication

12
Q

POP?

A

point of presence - bank of modems, servers, routers, and switches through which users can connect to ISPs simultaneously

13
Q

3 types of servers

A
  1. web server
  2. commerce servers
  3. file server
14
Q

web server?

A

computers that run specialized OSs that allow them to host web pages and other info in order to provide it to requesting clients

15
Q

Commerce server?

A

computers that host servers that enable users to buy good and services over the web

16
Q

file server?

A

computers that provide remote storage space or act as a storage house for files users have downloaded

17
Q

computer protocol?

A

set of rules for exchanging electronic info

18
Q

open system?

A

a system that is made public for access by any interested party

19
Q

are computer protocols open or proprietary systems?

A

open

20
Q

proprietary system?

A

closed system

21
Q

circuit switching? example?

A

a dedicated connection between 2 points that remains active for the duration of the transmission - telephone conversation

22
Q

packet switching?

A

data is broken into data packets and sent over various routes at the same time then are reassembled by the receiving computer

23
Q

which one is more efficient

a) circuit switching
b) packet switching

A

b)

24
Q

what are the min pieces of info a data packet must contain? (4)

A
  1. sending address - where is it going?
  2. originating address - where did it come from?
  3. data being transmitted - the package itself
  4. reassembly instructions
25
Q

TCP?

A

transmission control protocol

26
Q

what are the original 2 protocols that were developed for the internet?

A
  1. TCP

2. IP

27
Q

IP?

A

internet protocol - protocol responsible for sending info from one computer to another

28
Q

9 TCP/IP protocol suit main protocol? (4 of 9)

A
  1. IP - internet protocol
  2. TCP - transmission control protocol
  3. UDP - user datagram protocol
  4. FTP - tile transfer protocol
  5. telnet
  6. HTTP/HTTPS - hypertext transfer protocol/security
  7. SMTP - simple mail transfer protocol
  8. DHCP - dynamic host configuration protocol
  9. RTP - real-time transport protocol
29
Q

IP address?

A

a unique identification number that defines each computer, service, or device connected to the internet

30
Q

ICANN?

A

internet corporation for assigned names and numbers - a type of registration for IP addresses to ensure they are unique

31
Q

dotted decimal number/dotted quad?

A

the form of an IP address

32
Q

197.526.57.85 is an example of? what is the form called

A

IP address - dotted decimal number/dotted quad

33
Q

octet?

A

the number sections within a dotted decimal number/dotted quad

34
Q

IPv4?

a) what is it?
b) when was it created

A

a) internet protocol version 4 - the original IP addressing scheme
b) 1981

35
Q

IoT?

A

internet of things

36
Q

IPv6?

a) what is it?
b) who developed it?
c) purpose?

A

a) internet protocol version 6 - IP addressing scheme to make IP address longer
b) IETF
c) to provide more available IP address options

37
Q

hexadecimal digit?

A

16 base number system providing each hexadecimal digit as 16 possible values - 0 to 9 or A to F

38
Q

XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX: is an example of?

A

IPv6 address format

39
Q

2 ways a device is assigned an IP address. which one is more common?

A
  1. static addressing - IP address for a computer never changes assigned manually by a network administrator /ISP
  2. dynamic addressing - IP address is temporary from an available pool of IP addresses - more common
40
Q

DHCP?

A

dynamic host configuration protocol - what handles dynamic addressing by taking a pool of IP addresses and sharing them with hosts on the network on an ‘as-needed’ bases

41
Q

UDP?

A

user datagram protocol - what creates data packets

42
Q

connection-oriented protocol?

A

when 2 computers exchange control packs, establishing a parameter of a data-exchange session

43
Q

which one is a connection-oriented protocol?

a) TCP
b) UTP

A

a)

44
Q

handshaking process?

A

the act of establishing a parameter of the data-exchange session before devices can exchange data packets

45
Q

connectionless protocol?

A

a data exchanging protocol that doesn’t require a data-exchange session to be established

46
Q

ACK?

A

positive acknowledgment - When the receiving devices indicate to the sending devices that the packet has been received

47
Q

NAK?

A

negative acknowledgment - When the receiving device indicates tot the sending device that the packets has not been received, meaning it must be resent

48
Q

second-level domain?

A

a domain that is directly below the TLD

49
Q

TLD?

A

top-level domain

50
Q

who controls domain name registration?

A

ICANN

51
Q

DNS server?

A

domain name system server - a server that maintains a database that converts URLs into IP addresses

52
Q

root DNS server?

A

a server that knows the location of all DNS servers that contain the master listing s of the TLDs

53
Q

internet cache?

A

section of a users hard drive that stores info that the user may need again

54
Q

internet cache?

A

section of a users hard drive that stores info that the user may need again

55
Q

HTML tag

A

surround and define HTML contenet - <>

56
Q

element?

A

each pair of tags and the text between them - <br></br><hr>

57
Q

?

A

hyperlink

58
Q

CSS?

A

cascading style sheet - list of rules that define in one location how to display HTML elements

59
Q

3 layers of CSS styles

A
  1. external - stores separate files
  2. embedded - stores current HTML documents inside
  3. inline - stores within a single line inside the HTML document
60
Q

XML?

A

eXtensible markup language - a markup language that enables designers to define their own data-based tags

61
Q

JSON?

A

JavaScript Object Notation - popular format used to transfer info between computers

62
Q

HTTP?

A

hypertext transfer protocol - a protocol meant to transfer hypertext documents across the internet

63
Q

SSL?

A

secure sockets layer - network security protocol connected to HTTPS - the S part

64
Q

TLS?

A

transport layer security - an updated extension of SSL providing data integrity and security for transmissions over the internet

65
Q

3 XML custom packages with tags

A
  1. Math ML - , ,
  2. X3D - , ,
  3. MusicXML - , , ,
66
Q

server-side program?

A

a type of program that runs on a web server rather than a computer

67
Q

PHP and .NET are examples of?

A

popular interfaces for coding server-side programs

68
Q

client-side program?

A

a program that runs on the client compute ran requires no interaction with a web server

69
Q

HTML embedded scripting language?

A

a language that tucks programming code directly within HTML of a web page

70
Q

what is the most popular HTML embedded scripting language?

A

JavaScript

71
Q

applet?

A

a small application downloaded t client ready to run without additional data transfer

72
Q

DHTML?

A

dynamic HTML - a combination of HTML, CCS, and JavaScript used to create interactive and lively websites

73
Q

JavaScript?

A

the scripting language used to create DHTMLs

74
Q

DOM?

A

document object model - a model used by JavaScript to organize objects and page elements

75
Q

AJAX?

A

asynchronous JavaScript and XML - group of tech used to facilitate the creation of web app syles

76
Q

SMTP?

A

simple mail transfer protocol - sends emails along with the internet to their destination

77
Q

email servers?

A

a specialized computer whose sole function is to store, process, and send emails

78
Q

MIME?

A

multipurpose internet mail extensions - specification for sending files as attachments to emails

79
Q

encryption?

A

the process of coding your email so that only the person with the key to the code can decipher the message

80
Q

private-key encryption?

A

type of encryption where only the two parties involved in sending eh message have the code

81
Q

public-key encryption?

A

type of encryption where anyone wishing to send a message can then download your public key and cod to send to do so

82
Q

keypair?

A

two keys created to enable public/private key encryption

83
Q

public key?

A

a key that is distributed to the public for public messaging use

84
Q

OpenPGP?

A

open pretty good privacy - enables users to generate key pair to provide a private key for someone and a public key for everyone else - free to use

85
Q

what does a key look like?

A

a series of bits in which length depends on the security level needed