Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (85):
What is a research aim ?
The concept that the researcher wants to investigate.
What is a research question ?
an actual question for example "are females more likely to use auditory communication than males when using a mobile phone?
What is the self selecting sampling method ?
When people volunteer to take part in the study, often through adverts or posters.
What is opportunity sampling method ?
A sample of the most readily available participants
What is the Random sampling method ?
Where each member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected.
What is the snowball sampling method ?
When participants are asked to contact family and friends to also take part in the study.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the self selecting sampling method?
.Ethical as they volunteered
.Easy as participants turn up
.Biased based on who volunteers
.Possible Tim end cost of the advertising process.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Random sampling method?
.Representative of the target population
.Can still be biased from who choses to take part out of those selected.
.Can be difficult
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Opportunity sampling method?
.Quick to gather participants
.Very easy as no advertising or selection process required
.Biased based on where you go and who is available
.Less ethical as participants may feel more obliged to take part
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Snowball sampling method?
.Easy as only requires finding a few participants before they recruit the rest
.relatively cheep as no advertising
.Biased as all participants likely to know each other and therefore have many similarities
.May not get enough participants
What are unstructured observations ?
Non focused, general observation of a range of behaviours going on.
What are structured observations ?
Specific behaviour categories, defined through the development of a coding frame.
What is a naturalistic observation ?
observation in a natural environment
What is a Controlled observation ?
observation on a controlled laboratory setting
What is participant observation ?
Researchers are involved with those that are being observed.
What is non participant observation ?
Researchers stand apart and look from the outside at what there observing.
What is a covert observation ?
An observation where the participant does not know they are being observed.
What is an overt observation ?
An observation where the participant does know they are being observed.
What is event sampling?
The observer keeps count of each time a pre determined behaviour occurs.
What is time sampling?
The period of observation is broken up into a series of time intervals, and records of behaviour are related to such time intervals.
What is researcher / observer bias?
This occurs when a researcher is expecting to see a particular behaviour, and subconsciously may be biased ad record the data inaccurately.
What is researcher / observer effect?
If the people being observed are aware of the observation they may change their behaviour.
Whta is a laboratory experiment?
Iv is manipulated by the researcher and experiment is carried out in controlled conditions in a laboratory.
Whta is a Field experiment?
Iv is manipulated by the researcher but this time the experiment is carried out using participants in their normal surroundings.
What is a Quasi experiment?
Iv is naturally occurring not manipulated by the researcher.
What is repeated measures design ?
Using the same people in both conditions
What is independent measures design ?
Using different people in each condition
What is Matched groups design ?
Using different people in each conjoint but matching participant based on certain characteristics to reduce individual differences being a factor.
What are participants extraneous variables?
Characteristics of the individual participant that may effect the result
What are situational extraneous variables?
Any features of the research situation which could influence the result
What are demand characteristics?
Where participants may act in a way they consider expected of them, skewing the data of the study.
What is an alternative hypothesis ?
A hypothesis that predicts the IV will effect the DV
What is a null hypothesis?
A hypothesis that predicts there will be no effect and that any effect will be due to chance.
What is a two tailed hypothesis ?
It predicts the the Iv will gave a significant effect on the Dv, but it does not predict the direction that it will go in.
What is a one tailed hypothesis ?
It predict's not only that the Iv will have a significant effect on the DV, but also the direction this effect will go in.
What is quantitative data ?
Numbers, measurements and percentages.
What is qualitative data ?
Descriptive words meanings and pictures.
What are rating scales?
Will measure usually from 1 - 10 the extent of someones attitude towards something, eg really bad too really good
What are likert scales?
Uses statements and sees whether they; Strongly agree/. agree/ undecided/ disagree/ strongly disagree
What is a semantic differential?
Two polar opposite adjective e.g big and small with number in-between to see how far you agree
What is a structured interview ?
The interviewer asks the same closed questions
What is a unstructured interview ?
The researcher has topics to discuss, but it is more like a conversation.
What is a semi structured interview ?
The interviewer will have a set of questions to ask but the timing and phrasing can change, with more open ended questions.
What is a leading question?
Questions that lead a participant to be more likely to give a certain answer.
What are socially desirable answers?
Participant will give answers they think make them look good
What are forced choice questions?
Where participants must choose one item from the limited range available.
What are demand characteristics?
Participant may give answers they think the researcher wants here.
What is a standard response set?
Giving the same answer to all questions
What is nominal data?
Headcount - number of participants who do one thing over an other eg. headcount of number of males vs females eat fruit
What is ordinal data?
Rank order - position of an item within a group, however not measured so can't see the difference between each eg. 1st second and third
What is Interval / ratio level of data
Rank order + individual results, takes amount of the differences between each position based on the individual data eg. measure of concentration using 30 word word search, results = 1st 29 2nd 23 and 3rd 10
What is a correlational hypothesis?
Same as null and alternate, uses words significant correlation over significant difference, and in a one tailed hypothesis suggests either a positive or negative correlation.
What is the test for nominal, independent measures experiment ?
What is the test for nominal, repeated measures experiment ?
Binomial sign test
What is the test Ordinal, independent measures experiment ?
Mann - Whitney U-test
What is the test for Ordinal, repeated measures experiment ?
Wilcoxon signed ranks
What is the test for Ordinal, correlation study ?
What is the test for Interval/ratio, independent measures experiment ?
What is the test for Interval/ratio, repeated measures experiment ?
What is the test for Interval/ratio, correlation study ?
Pearsons product moment
How do u perform a Binomial sign test?
.In the third column add a + or - to show the direction of the difference, if unchanged then don't use that participant and don't count them when working out n.
.calculate the number of times your least frequent sign (+ or - ) as-rears and call this your calculate value of x.
.Use the critical value table to see if there is a significant difference.
How do you do report writing?
.Abstract (summary shown to public)
.Introduction (all research before hand)
.Method (may reference to appendixes)
How do you reference in report writing?
Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).
What is a coding frame?
Categories that allow you to standardise an observation.
What is a type 1 error?
False positive, alternative is accepted null is rejected.
What is a type 2 error?
False negative, null is accepted alternative is rejected.
What are the strengths and weaknesses of peer review?
.Researcher who reviews it may not publish
What is a normal or skewed graph?
Normal = middle hump
Positive skewed = left
Negative skewed = right
What is deductive and inductive reasoning?
Deductive = Hypothesis - examination - conclusion
inductive = Makes conclusions from data
What is a like hurt scale?
Strongly agree - Strongly disagree
2 words = big / small
What were the 4 practical - experiments ?
.Memory for words and pictures
.Ball and Bucket
.Birth order and Language ability
.Replication of Grant
What were the 2 practical - Self reports ?
.Gender and Sport
What were the 2 practical - Correlations ?
.How Urban your town is and wildlife knowledge
.Tiredness and reaction time
What were the 2 practical - Observations ?
.Mobile phone use by males and females
,Parking of staff and students
What are the four areas of ethical considerations?
What comes under the ethical consideration of respect?
.right to withdraw
What comes under the ethical consideration of competence
.To work within there area of expertise
What comes under the ethical consideration of responsibility?
.Protection of participant
What comes under the ethical consideration of Integrity?
What are the measures of central tendencies?
Mean Mode Median
What are the two types of external validity?
.Population validity (Generalisable)
What are the four types of internal validity?
.Face (does it measure what it claims to)
.Content (test of items used)
.Concurrent (Comparison between two tests on a particular behaviour)
.Predictive (How well a test predicts future behaviour)
What is the one type of external reliability?
.Test retest (same study multiple times)