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Flashcards in Unit 1: Lecture Things Deck (86):
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Body planes

Transverse, frontal, saggital, oblique, median

1

Classification of bones

Long, short, flat, irregular, sesame is

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Joints

Synovial, fibrous, cartilaginous

3

Synovial joints

Pivot, ball and socket, hinge, saddle, condyloid, plane

4

Fibrous joint

Syndesmosis, suture, gomphosis

5

Cartilaginous

Primary (epiphysial plate), secondary (intervertebral disc)

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Shape of muscle

Flat, pennate, fusiform, quadrate, circular or sphincteral

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Functions of lymphatic system

Drain tissue fluids, absorb and transport fat, formation of defense mechanism for body

8

Extrinsic back muscles

Trapezius, latissimus Dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboids

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Triangle of auscultation

Vertebral border of scapula, superior border of latissimus, lateral border of trapezius

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Extrinsic intermediate muscles of back

Serratus posterior superior and inferior

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Intrinsic muscles of back

Splenius, erector spinal, transverse spinal

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Transversospinalis group

Semispinalis, multifidus, rotators

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Joints of vertebrae

Facet (zygapophysial) between articulate facets
Fibrocartilaginous (symphasis) intervertebral discs

14

Disc most prone to rupture

Limbo-sacral joint, tear in annulus fibrosis

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Pars interarticularis

Region of lamina between superior and inferior facets

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Spondylolysis

Fracture of pars portion of vertebrae

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Spondylolisthesis

Vertebrae shift forward due to instability from pars defect

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Scottie dog image

Refers to spondylolysis break

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There is no ligament between what?

The pedi led. Because of intervetebral formina and emergence of spinal nerves

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Ligamentous nuchae

Serves as attachment of cervical muscles

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Needle passage through which layers in spinal tap

Supra and interspinous ligaments, through ligamenta flava (pop), epidural space, dura, arachnoid, subarachnoid space

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Pia 2 shock cords?

Denticulate ligaments, filamentum terminal

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Grey matter

Consists of nerve cell bodies and unmylinated nerves

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White matter

Consists of myelinated axons for communication up and down the column

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Types of nerves

Somatic sensory, somatic motor, visceral sensory, visceral motor

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Dermatomes

Skin area supplied by a single pair of nerves

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Peripheral nervous system

Divisions are somatic and Autonomic
Components are cranial and spinal nerves

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Autonomic nervous system

Divisions are Visceral sensory and visceral motor

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Somatic division neurons

One motor neuron, cell bodies in cns, axons all the way to skeletal muscles

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Autonomic system neuron

2 motor neurons, preganglionic in cns, ganglion if in cell body in ganglion outside cns, slower than somatic because less or no myelination

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Origin of parasympathetic

Most cranial and sacral nerves

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Origin of sympathetic

T1-L2

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Sympathetic also called

Thoracolumbar system

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Parasympathetic also called

Craniosacral

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Sympathetic release

Norepinephrine

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Parasympathetic release

Actylcholine

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Trapezius O and I

Occipital protuberance, C7-T12

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Latissimus Dorsi O and I

T7-L5, iliac crest and humerus bicipital goove

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Levator Scapulae O and I

C1-C4 and superior angle of scapula

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Rhomboid maj and min O and I

C7-T1, T2-T5 and medial border of scapula

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Rhomboid active when...

Forcibly lowering arms, sledgehammer

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Serratus Posterior Superior and Inferior O and I

C7-T3 and T11-L2 and 2-5 rib, 8-12 rib

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Function of the back

Support, movement, protection

45

Secondary Curvatures

Move body center of gravity within the body to permit upright posture; Lumbar and cervical

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Kyphosis

Wedging anteriorly

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Lordosis

Wedging posteriorly

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Vertebral arch and processes exists

to protect the spinal cord, attachments of muscles, articulation with the ribs, regulation of movements

49

T12

Transition vertebrae, most likely to be fractured

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Vertebrae are held together by

ligaments, intervertebral discs, synovial joints between articular processes

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2 components of Intervertebral disks

Outer rim (anulus fibrosus), Central gelatinous nucleus pulposus; shock absorbers

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Ligamentum Nuchae

Serves as attachment of cervical muscles

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Lateral Horns of grey matter present in?

Thoracic region only

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Flexor Reflex

Cuteaneous ending, afferent neuron, internuncial neuron, alpha motor neuron, motor end plates

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Monosynaptic Stretch reflex

Neuromuscular spindle, afferent neuron, alpha motor neuron, motor end-plate

56

3 a and v drainage of spinal cord

p. spinal v., p. spinal a., and posterolateral spinal v

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Splanchnic nerve

Innervates internal organs through a prevertebral ganglia, activating sympathetic senses, except pelvic which is parasympathetic

58

****4 directions of preganglionic axons in sympathetic trunk

Synapse on postganglionic neuron in chain ganglion then return to spinal nerve and follow ganglioin to the skin, ascend or descend, enter without synapsing, form spanchnic nerve synapsing in prevertebral ganglion

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Laciferous duct

Commence toward nipple from each lobe

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Lactiferous sinus

open into tip of nipple, collect milk and contract in let down reflex

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Blood supply of breast

Internal thoracic artery (subclavian), Axillary branches: superior thoracic, thoracoacromial (pec branch), lateral thoracic, subscapular, and intercostal artery

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What supplies blood to nipple and areola?

Intercostal Artery

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Venous drainage of breast

internal mammary, axillary, posterior intercostal

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Lymphatic Drainage of breast

Axillary, internal mammary, supraclavicular, posterior intercostal

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2 groups of Lymphatic drainage

Superficial, skin; deep, tissue and areola/nipple

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Superficial drainage nodes

Axillary, supraclavicular, parasternal

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Deep drainage nodes

Anterior axillary, subareolar lymphatic plexus, parasternal, posterior intercostal, supraclavicular

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Signs of breast cancer

Skin dimpling, nipple retraction, Peau d'orange; aka pull on suspensory ligaments, retraction of milk ducts, lymphatic obstruction

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Amazia

Nipple development, no breast development

70

Athelia

No nipple over breast

71

Clavipectoral fascia

very thick layer wraps around pec minor and extends to axillary fossa

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Retinacula

Transverse thickening of the antebrachial fascia, retains tendons; acts as pullies

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Palmar aponeurosis

deep fascia extends into the hand as he palmar aponeurosis and extends into the fingers

74

Subdivisions of clavipectotoral

costochoricoid membrane, suspensory ligament

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Pectoralis Major O and I

Clavicular and sternal attachements; lateral lip of bicipital groove of humerus

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Pectoralis Minor O and I

3-5 ribs; coracoid process of scapula

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Subclavius O and I

1st rib and cartilage; middle third of clavicle

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Serratus Anterior O and I

1-8 ribs; Medial border of scapula

79

Rotator cuff muscles

Deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major, subscapularis

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Which rotator cuff muscle is damaged the most?

Supraspinatus; it does not rotate

81

Flexor Retinaculum

Thickening of the fascia in the forearm, attaches to the scaphoid and trapezium, pisiform and hamate

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Biceps O and I

Long head: supraglenoid process; short head: coracoid process, radial tubrosity

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Choracobrachialis O and I

Coracoid process, middle of humerus

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Brachialis O and I

Distal humerus, coronoid tuberosity of ulna

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Triceps O and I

Long: infraglenoid tubercle, Laterial: posterior humerus, radial groove, Medial: humerus, radial groove; olecranon

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Aconeus O and I

Epicondyle of humerus, olecranon