Unit 3: somatic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: somatic Deck (80):
1

perception

interpretation of sensation into meaningful forms occurs in the cerebrum

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how much sensory information is consciously perceived

very little, most is not processed at all

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somatic sensation

sensory information from skin and musculoskeletal

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information from skin examples

superficial: touch, pain, temperature, pressure and vibration; also deep cutateous

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information from musculoskeletal

proprioception, tension on muscles, joints, position, deep vibration and pain

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differences in system

unevenly distribution of receptors, responsiveness, different diameters of nerves

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types of receptors

mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors

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mechanoreceptors

mechanical deformations touch, pressure, stretch, vibration

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chemoreceptors

released by cells, injury or infection

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thermoreceptors

hot, cold

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parts of body loaded with receptors

hands and face

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differences in architecture

encapsulated or uncapsulated

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unencapsulated

free nerve endings, primarily sensitive to tissue damage: pain receptors, temperature fluxes

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encapsulated sensory cells

touch, vibration

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Differences in receptors

architecture, receptive fields, type of innervation, attenuation properties

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pacinian corpuscles

deep vibration

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ruffinis endings

deep, stretch, joint deformation, warmth, how much force is put on joint

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meissners corpuscles

shallow, light touch vibration

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Merkel's disks

shallow, light touch

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krause end bulbs

shallow, cold

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nerve endings

temperature

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Some nerve endings respond to

touch, tickle, or itch

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What has small receptive fields

meissners and merkel

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what has large receptive fields

pacinian and ruffini

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test for receptive field

two point test, whether two points can be distinguished; high resolution vs low resolution

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2 types of fine touch

superficial and subcutaneous

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coarse touch

uses free nerve ending, pleasant touch tickle, itch

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what uses meissners and merkles touch

superficial fine touch

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types of innervation

Large myelinated, medium myelinated, small myelinated and small unmyelinated

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4 types of axons

Aa, AB, Ad, C

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what do C fibers do

mediate pain and temperature

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what is largest fiber

Aa, tell your brain where your muscles are

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Where are largest and fastest

in muscles not skin

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Receptor attenuation refers to

Adaptation

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pt suffers 3rd degree bone, not through hyperdermis what will they be able to detect

not touch or temperature, but deep vibration perhabs

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tonic

slow to adapt, keep firing as long as stimulus is present provide long term feedback (carotid sinus*)

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phasic

respond only when there is a change in the stimulus

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3 parts of muscle spindles

Muscle fibers, sensory neurons, motor neurons

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golgi tendon organs

determine how much tension a muscle is under, only sensitive to force, can send inhibitory signals to the muscle to relax if under too much force

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joint receptors

Respond to movement of joint and ligaments: ruffini, paciniform, ligament receptors, free nerve ending; fastest

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tonic

slow to adapt, keep firing as long as stimulus is present provide long term feedback (carotid sinus)

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Type of proprioceptors

Muscle spindles, golgi tendon organ, joint receptors

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there is redundency in?

proprioceptors so if you lose one you have more

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golgi tendon organs

determine how much tension a muscle is under, only sensitive to force

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dorsal columns carry

discriminate touch and proprioception

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primary relay

carries from receptor to medulla

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secondary relay carries

crosses over and ascends to ventral posteriolateral nucleus, medulla to thalamus

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tertiary relay carries

conveys info from thalamus to the cerebral cortex

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joint receptors nerves

ruffini, paciniform, ligament receptors, free nerve; fastest

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primary sensory cortex discriminates among

size, texture, shape

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somatosensory association areas

determines what thing is from sensory info

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3 pathways that carry info to brain

conscious relay, divergent pathways, and unconscious relay

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who do paths differ

in ability to locate stimulus, and awareness

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stereognosis

ability to identify something by touch only

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nerve bundlig

tend to stay together from same part of body, usually minimum of 3 neurons

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conscious relay

high fidelity info, info is also discriminative, can make fine distinctions

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2 pathways of conscious relay

dorsal columns and anteriolateral tracts

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injure right side of cord at L1, where will pain be

won't feel it on the left side, won't feel proprioception on right side

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will sensory be ipsilateral or contralateral of injury

if injury is distal end of cord it will be ipsilateral, if at brain stem it will be contralateral

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primary sensory cortex

discriminates size, texture, shape

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association

determines what thing is from sensory info

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how do touch and proprioception rise?

ipsilaterally before crossing over to medulla

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what happens if you lose peripheral afferent info

awareness of body can be lost

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stereonosis

can identify by feeling

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if have lesion loss will occur

below the lesion

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course, pain and touch travel through

lateral tracts

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spinothalamic path

temperature pathway, cross over is immediate

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High fidelity

can feel precisely where stimulus is

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What is a receptive field

how large an area of the skin that is served by a single receptor and neuron

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What type of touch is Pacinian and ruffini's

subcutaneous fine touch

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What primary afferent axon mediates touch sensation

AB

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Tonic receptor example

Merkel's disk, Ruffini's ending

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Phasic receptor example

Meissner's corpuscle, pacinian corpuscle

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Muscle spindles are

the sensory organs embedded muscle that keep muscles from lengthening too much or too fast

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Conscious relay is

awareness of stimuli and precise location

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Divergent pathways are

awareness but cannot localize

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Unconscious relays are

unaware

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Anteriolateral tracts carry what kind of information

pain, temperature and coarse touch

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Muscle spindle function

Keeps muscles from lengthening too much or too fast, informs CNS of joint angles

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Anterolateral tract

pain, temperature, coarse touch