Unit 3: skull and brain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: skull and brain Deck (49):
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reticular activating system

on/off switch for consciousness

1

Brain stem

regulates autonomic functions, eye and auditory reflexes contains midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

2

cerebellum

large brain mass lying posterior to BS and inferior to cerebrum, coordination and modulation of complex movements

3

Midbrain CN

III and IV

4

pons CN

V, VI, VII, VIII

5

cerebellum effect on movement

doesnt generate any movement by itself, but fine tones everything, like eating a brownie in class, damage in cerebellum disrupts this

6

Medulla oblongata CN

CN IX, X, XI, XII

7

Dysarthria

disruption in speak

8

nystagmus

disruption in eye movement

9

Midline lesion of cerebellum

loss of postural control

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distal lesion on cerebellum

effect function of arms and legs

11

Cerebellar lesions tends to be

ipsilateral, if on right side it will effect right arm

12

ventricles

protective function and clean up rubbish, supports and buffers brain against sudden movement, tightly regulated

14

Number of ventricles

2 lateral (cerebral hemispheres) and 2 midsaggital (diencephalon and anterior to cerebelum

15

choroid plexus

colored network of vessels, produces spinal fluid; leave brain behind inferior portion of cerebellum

16

lateral ventricle

in each hemisphere, separated by septum pellucidium

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midsaggital ventricle

3rd-diencephalon, intraventricular foramen communicates with lateral ventricles; 4th inferior to cerebellum and into BS

17

cerebral aquiduct

runs through midbrain and communicates with 3rd and 4th ventricle, contains CSF

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ependynmal cells

work in conjuction with capilaries to mak efluid

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partial blindness

occipital

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CSF circulation

choroid plexuses-> ventricular system-> medial&lateral aperatures-> subarachnoid space->circulation-> arachnoid granulations- dural venous sinuses

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difficulty remembering words

parietal

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clear fluid from nose

temporal bone let fluid escape from dura letting csf escape

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unsteady gait but no sensory loss

cerebullum

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nystagmus

pons, midbrain

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blood supply arteries

thin walls, no vasa vasora, no int elastic lamina, thin tunica media, prone to hypertension

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function of blood supply

collateral circulation route-> safegaurd against ischemia, equalize blood flow

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veins of brain

no muscle no valves, do no follow arteries, open into sinuses

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circle of willis

anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, posterior communicating and posterior cerebral

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internal carotid

circle of willis, enters through temporal bone, courses anteriorly through cavernous sinus, forms middle cerebral arteries, supplies later side of hemisphere

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middle cerebral supplies

lateral side of hemisphere

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posterior cerrebral supplies

inferior part and posterior

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anterior cerebral supplies

the limbic lobe, the portion just midial, between hemispheres

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anterior communicating

connects two anterior branches

34

vertebral artery

originates from subclavian, courses through transverse foramina and foramen magnum; terminates and supplies posterior cerebral artery

35

types of stroke

ischemic stroke (90%, 70% effect vertebral artery); blood is very toxic to brain tissue; hemorrhagic stokes result in death (10%)

36

What part of the body is most likely affected in stroke?

Face, motor and sensory

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weakest point of skull

frontal parietal temporal and sphenoid; pteryon: due to process of birth, it is a lap suture, easy to rupture

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lies under pteryon

middle meningeal artery, receives blood from everything in skull; fracture may result in blood pushing brain medially, difficulty in speech, nystagmus etc

40

Cerebrum

main integration center includes hemispheres, basal ganglia

41

Hemispheres

highest integration functions speech, motor, emotion, memory

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Basal ganglia

procedural learning of habits, moderates movement

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5 lobes of cerebrum

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula

44

Werneke's

if damaged causes nonsensical language

45

Brocas

motor control of speech

46

Diencephalon

central core of brain

47

Thalamus

relay and filter

48

epithalamus

links limbic system and circadian rhythms

49

hypothalamus

link to endocrine