Unit 1, Module 4 Glossary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1, Module 4 Glossary Deck (30):
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Energy

The ability to do work

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ATP

A phosphorylated nucleotide and is the universal energy currency.

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Anabolic reactions

Biochemical reactions where large molecules are synthesised from smaller ones.

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Catabolic reactions

Biochemical reactions where larger molecules are hydrolysed to produce smaller molecules.

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Oxidation reactions

Involve the loss of electrons

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Reduction reactions

Involve the addition of electrons

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NAD

Coenzyme involved in respiration. It removes hydrogen atoms from substrates. It becomes reduced NAD, which carries hydrogen atoms.

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Coenzyme A

A coenzyme that carries acetate from the link reaction of respiration to Krebs cycle.

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Glycolysis

A metabolic pathway where each glucose molecules is broken down to two molecules of pyruvate. It occurs in the cytoplasm of all living cells and is common to anaerobic and aerobic pathways.

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Hexose sugars

Sugars with six carbon atoms in each molecule.

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Hydrolysis

The breaking down of large molecules to smaller molecules by the addition of water.

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Triose sugars

Sugars which have three carbon atoms in each molecule.

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Substrate-level phosphorylation

Formation of ATP from ADP and Pi during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.

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Mitochondria

Organelles found in eukaryote cells. They are the sites of the link reaction, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation - the aerobic stages of respiration.

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Cristae

The folded inner membrane of mitochondria that gives it a large suface area.

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Intermembrane space

The area between the inner and outer membranes.

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Matrix

The semi-rigid and gel-like mixture of proteins and lipids enclosed by the inner membrane.

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Electron carriers

Molecules that transfer electrons

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ATP synthase

Enzyme associated with stalked particles in mitochondria and chloroplasts. It catalyses the joining of ADP and inorganic phosphate to make ATP.

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Link reaction

Converts pyruvate to acetate. NAD is reduced.

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Krebs cycle

Oxidises acetate to carbon dioxide. NAD and FAD are reduced, ATP is made by substrate level phosphorylation.

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Pyruvate dehydrogenase

The enzyme that removes hydrogen atoms from pyruvate.

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Pyruvate decarboxylase

The enzyme which removes a carboxyl group, which eventually becomes carbon dioxide, from pyruvate,

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Acetyl coenzyme A

The product when coenzyme A accepts acetyl.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

The formation of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP, in the presence of oxygen, which is the final electron acceptor.

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Chemiosmosis

The flow of hydrogen ions through ATP synthase enzymes. The force of this flow allows the production of ATP. Occurs across the inner mitochondrial membrane during oxidative phosphorylation in respiration.

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Proton motive force

Force produced as hydrogen ions flow, through ATP synthase channels, down their concentration gradient. The force cause ADP and Pi to combine and form ATP.

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Anaerobic respiration

The release of energy from substrates, such as glucose, in the absence of oxygen.

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Respiratory substrate

An organic substance that can be used for respiration.

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Mole

The gram molecule mass of a substance. 180g glucose is one mole of glucose.