Unit 2, Module 2 Glossary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2, Module 2 Glossary Deck (19):

Vegetative propogation

The production of structure in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms. These offspring contain the same genetic information as the parent and so are clones of the parent.


Basal sprouts (root suckers)

A type of vegetative propagation, where new growth form from meristem tissue close to the ground.


Clonal patch

When root suckers grown into a circle of new elms.


Tissue culture

The separation of cells of any tissue type and their growth in or on a nutrient medium. In plants, the undifferentiated callus tissue is gron in nutrient medium containing plant hormones that stimulate development of the complete plant.



A piece of tissue taken from a particular plant then sterilised in order to grow a callus in tissue culture micropropagation


Totipotent stem cells

Stem cells that can differentiate into any type of specialised cells found in organisms of that species.


Cloned animal

On tat has been produced using the same genetic information as another animal. Such an animal has the same genotype as the donor organism.



Technology based on biology and involves the exploitation of living organisms or biological processes, to improve agriculture, animal husbandry, food science, medicine and industry.



A growth of microorganisms. This may be a single species or a mixture of species. Microorganisms can be cultures in a liquid such as nutrient broth, or on a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel.


Primary metabolite

Any metabolite which is formed as part of the normal growth of a microorganism. During growth the lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and waste products generated by the microorganism in order to grow in numbers are described as primary metabolites.


Secondary metabolites

A metabolite produced by a microorganism, usually in the latter stages of growth as the culture ages. Secondary metabolites are not specifically required for the organism to grow. They usually have antibiotic properties.


Aseptic technique

Any measure taken at any point in a biotechnology process to ensure that unwanted microorganisms do not contaminate the culture that is being grown or the products that are extracted.



The absence of unwanted microorganisms.


Batch culture

A culture of microorganisms that takes place in a single fermentation. Products are separated from the mixture at the end of the fermentation process.


Continuous culture

A culture of microorganisms set up in a reaction vessel to which substrates are added and from which products are removed as the fermentation process continues.



Any unwanted microorganism in a culture.



Any technique where enzyme molecules are held, separated from the reaction mixture. Substrate molecules can bind to the enzyme molecules and the products formed go back into the reaction mixture leaving the enzyme molecules in place.


Downstream processing

The process involved in the separation and purification of any product of large-scale fermentations.



A mass of undifferentiated plant cells formed by meristem tissue extracted from the plant and is grown in tissue culture.