Unit 2, Module 1 Glossary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2, Module 1 Glossary Deck (15):
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Gene

A length of DNA that codes for one (or more) polypeptides.

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Polypeptide

A polymer consisting of a chain of amino acid residues joined by peptide bonds.

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Genome

The entire DNA sequence of that organism. The human genome consists of about 3 billion nucleotide base pairs.

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Protein

A large polypeptide - usually 100 or more amino acids. Some proteins consist of one polypeptide chain and some consists of more that one polypeptide chain.

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Transcription

The creation of a single-stranded mRNA copy of the DNA coding strand.

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Translation

The assembly of polypeptides at ribosomes.

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Codons

Triplets of nucleotide bases.

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Anticodon

Triplet of unpaired nucleotide bases on tRNA. Each anticodon can bind temporarily with its complementary codon.

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Mutation

A change in the amount of, or arrangement of, the genetic material of a cell.

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Chromosome mutations

Involve changes to parts of or whole chromosomes.

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DNA mutations

Changes to genes due to changes in the nucleotide base sequences.

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Point mutation

A DNA mutation in which one base pair replaces another. Also known as substitutions.

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Substitutions

A DNA mutation in which one base pair replaces another. These are also called point mutations.

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Insertion/deletion mutations

DNA mutation in which one or more nucleotide pairs are inserted or deleted from a length of DNA.

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Allele

An alternative version of a gene. It is still at the same locus on the chromosome and codes for the same polypeptide but the alteration to the DNA base sequence may alter the protein's structure.