Flashcards in Unit 2, Module 2 - Biotechnology Deck (53):
What are the four major areas of application for biotechnology?
Healthcare and medical processes.
What does the use of biotechnology include when used in healthcare and medical processes?
The production of drugs by microorganisms.
Gene therapy to treat some genetic disorders.
What does the use of biotechnology include when used in agriculture?
Micropropagation of plants.
Development of genetically modified plants.
What does the use of biotechnology include when used in industry?
Genetically modifying organisms to produce enymes.
What does the use of biotechnology include when used in food science?
Developing foods with improved nutrition or better taste, texture and appearance.
What are some example of biotechnology being used in the production of foods?
Cheese and yoghurt-making.
Naturally brewed soya sauce.
What organisms are involved in cheese and yoghurt making?
Bacterial (Lactobactillus) growth in milk changes the flavour and texture of the milk to generate a different food.
They prevent the growth of other bacteria that would cause spoilage, and so preserve the food.
What organisms are involved the production of mycoprotien?
Growth if of specific fungus (Fusarium) in culture.
The fungal mycelium produced is separated and processed as food.
What organisms are involved in the production of naturally brewing soya sauce?
Roasted soya beans are fermented with yeast or fungi such as Aspergillus.
What are some examples of biotechnology being used in the production of drugs or other pharmaceutical chemicals?
What organism is involved in the production of penicillin.
The fungus Penicillium grown in culture produces the antibiotic as a by-product of its metabolism.
What are some examples of biotechnology used in the production of enzymes or other chemicals for commercial use?
Pectinase, used in fruit juice extraction.
Calcium citrate, used in detergents.
Bio-gas fuel production.
What organism is used in the production of pectinase?
The fungus A. niger grown in certain conditions produces and secretes pectinase enzymes
What organism is used in the production of calcium citrate?
The fungus A. niger produces citric acid as a by-product of its normal metabolism.
What organism is involved in bio-gas fuel production?
Methanogenic bacteria, grown on concentrates sewage, respire anaerobically and generate gases that can be used as fuel.
What is an example of biotechnology used in the bioremediation of waste products?
Waste water treatment.
What organisms are involved in waste water treatment?
A variety of bacteria and fungi use organic waste in the water as nutrients and make the waste harmless.
Fusarium grown o corn steep liquor,
Why is the use of microorganisms in biotechnological processes widespread?
Grow rapidly in favourable conditions.
Often produce proteins or chemicals that are given out into the surrounding medium and can be harvested.
Can be genetically engineered to produce specific products.
Grow well at relatively low temperatures.
Can be grown anywhere in the the world and not dependent on climate
Tend to generate products that are more pure.
Often grown using nutrient materials that might be useless or toxic.
What happens during the lag phase?
Organisms are adjusting to the surrounding conditions.
It takes time for production of enzymes so organisms can function.
What happens during the log phase?
Number of bacteria increases rapidly.
The population size doubles each generation.
What happens during the stationary phase?
Nutrient levels decrease and waste products and other metabolites build up.
The rate of growth is equal to rate of death.
What happens during the decline or death phase?
Death rate increases above the reproduction rate.
What are some example of primary metabolites?
What are the properties of primary metabolites?
Part of an organism normal growth.
Production matches growth in population of the organism.
What is an example of a secondary metabolite?
What are the properties of secondary metabolites?
Not part of organism's normal growth.
Production begins are the main growth period of organism.
Production does not match growth in population of organism.
What growing conditions must be controlled in a culture?
Type and time of addition of nutrient.
Why must temperature be controlled in a culture?
If it is too hot enzymes will be denatured.
If it is too cool growth will be slowed.
Why must the type and time of addition of nutrient be controlled in a culture?
Growth of microorganisms requires specific nutrient supply.
The timing can be manipulated to cause production of primary of secondary metabolite.
Why must the oxygen concentration of a culture be controlled?
A lack of oxygen will lead to the unwanted products of anaerobic respiration and a reduction in growth rate.
Why must the pH of a culture be controlled?
Changes in pH can reduce activity of enzymes and so reduce growth rates.
What are the properties of a batch culture?
Microorganism starter population is mixed to grown for fixed period with no further nutrient added.
Products are removed after a fixed period.
Smaller fermenter size.
What are the advantages of batch culture?
Easy to set up and maintain.
If contamination occurs only one batch is lost.
Very useful for processes involving the production of secondary metabolites.
What are the disadvantages of a batch culture?
Growth rate is slower because nutrient level declines with time.
Less efficient, fermenter is not in operation all of the time.
What are the properties of a continuous culture?
Nutrients are added at intervals.
Products are removed continuously.
Large fermenter size.
What are the advantages of continuous culture?
Growth rate is higher as nutrients are continuously added to the fermentation tank.
More efficient, fermenter operates continuously.
Very useful for processes involving the production off primary metabolites.
What do unwanted microorganisms in a culture do?
Compete with the culture microorganism for nutrients and space.
Reduce the yield of useful products from culture organisms.
May cause spoilage of the product.
May produce toxic chemicals.
May destroy the culture microorganisms and their products.
What are some aseptic techniques and measure at laboratory and starter culture level?
All apparatus for moving/carrying microorganism is sterilised before and after use. - Heat in flame or UV light.
Work can be carries out in a fume cupboard.
Cultures of microorganisms are kept closed where possible and way from bench surface when open and in use.
What are some aseptic and measure at large-scale culture level?
Washing, disinfecting and steam-cleaning the fermenter and associated pipes when not in use.
Fermenter surfaces made of polished stainless steel prevent microbes and medium sticking to surfaces.
Sterilising all nutrient media before adding to fermenters.
Fine filter on inlet and outlet pipes avoid microorganism entering or leaving fermentation vessel.
Why are enzymes so useful in industrial processes?
Specificity = fewer by-products are formed and les purification of products is necessary.
Temperature of enzyme action - relatively low which saves money n fuel costs.
What are the advantage of immobilising enzymes?
Enzymes are not present with products so purifications processing costs are low.
Enzymes are immediately available for reuse. This is particularly useful in allowing for continuos processes.
They are more stable as immobilising matrix protects the enzyme molecules.
What are the disadvantages of immobilising enzymes?
It requires time, equipment and material and so is more expensive to set up.
They can be less active active because they do not mix freely with substrate.
Any contamination is costly to deal with because the whole system would need to be stopped.
What are the four methods of immobilising enzymes?
How are enzymes immobilised by adsorption?
Enzyme molecules are mixed with the immobilising support and bind to it due to a combination of hydrophobic interactions and ionic links.
What are some adsorbing agents?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of immobilising enzymes by adsorption?
Enzymes can become detached as bonding forces are not particularly strong.
Molecules are held so that their active site is not changed and is displayed.
How are enzymes immobilied by covalent bonding?
Enzyme molecules are covalently bonded to a support, often covalently links enzymes together and to insoluble material using cross-linking agent.
What is the disadvantage of immobilising enzymes by covalent bonding?
Does not immobilise a large quantity of enzymes.
What is the advantage of immobilising enzymes by covalent bonding?
Binding is very strong so there is very little leakage of enzymes from the support.
How are enzymes immobilised by entrapment?
Enzymes are trapped in a gel bead or a network of cellulose fibres.
What is the advantage of immobilising enzymes by entrapment?
The enzymes are immobilised in their natural state so their active site will not be affected.
What is the disadvantage of immobilising enzymes by entrapment?
Reaction rate can be reduced because substrate molecules beed to get through the trapping barrier.