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1

Classes of word

Parts of speech, or categories words fall under that are the structure of the English language.

Content Words: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs
Function Words: prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, interjections

2

Adjective

Class of Word that modify nouns.

- Morphological criterions: can end with {er}/{est}; more/most can precede it; can be added after "seem"

-Syntactical criterion: can be placed between a noun and its noun marker

3

Adverb

Class of Word that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb, or other adverb or a word group, expressing a relation of place, time, circumstance, manner, cause, degree, etc.

-Morphological criterion: can end with the suffix -{ly} but there are many adverbs that cannot be identified by this method.

-Syntactical criterion: there are many placements for an adverb

4

Criterion

Morphological (test to determine class of the word; usually a change in form)

Syntactical (test to determine class of the word; usually the slot where the word fits)

5

Head

When discussing a phrase, the head is the noun.
e.g. "skilled typist": the head is "typist"

6

Intransitive verb

-Verbs that do not take on an object.
e.g. The old man next door *died*. After the race, we *swam*. We often *jog* in the early morning.

7

Modifier

When discussing a phrase, the modifier is the adjective.
e.g. "skilled typist": the modifier is "skilled"

8

Modify

In the phrase "modify nouns" it is taken to mean: limit, describe, restrict.

9

Noun

Class of Words: events, opinions, and causes.

Morphological Criterion: able add the suffix {s}

Syntactical Criterion: Word order; preceded by a noun marker (i.e. the, a, many, that)

10

noun marker

Function words that precede a noun.
i.e. the, a, many, that, these

11

noun modifier

A noun that modifies another noun.
e.g. "race horse", "race" is a noun modifier

12

object

Word that comes after the verb. e.g. The frog grabbed the fly.

13

past tense

A tense expressing an action that has happened or a state that previously existed.

14

phrase

Groups of words.

15

plural number

Multiple units of the noun.

16

present tense

A tense expressing an action that is currently going on or habitually performed, or a state that currently or generally exists.

17

singular number

One unit of the noun.

18

slot

Position in a sentence

19

tense

Category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

20

transitive verb

Verbs that have an object following the verb.

e.g. Anna brought a book. My neighbor collects old cars. The teacher wrote many comments on my paper.

21

verb

Class of Words: typically express action, state, or a relation between two things

Morphological criterions: changes in tense (e.g.walk→walked)

Syntactical criterion: usually follows one of the two following word-order patterns: subject-verb or
subject-verb-object

22

alchemists

Origin: Greek or Egypt

Etymology: {chem}=[plant] juice or {Khem}=[dark]

Modern: person who attempts to change base metals (e.g., lead) into precious metals (e.g., gold)

23

pandemonium

Origin: Greek

Etymology: "realm of all demons"

Modern: chaos, mayhem

24

lunatic

Origin: Latin

Etymology: "moonstruck"

Modern: person who is insane

25

punch

Origin: Hindi, Sanskrit

Etymology: "drink with five ingredients"

Modern: a drink with several ingredients

26

decimated

Origin: Latin

Etymology: "punish/kill every tenth person"

Modern: to totally wipe out/demolish/destroy

27

Stationary/Stationery

Stationary: standing without moving; derived from Latin.

Stationery: Writing materials; derived from Latin.

28

Stationary/Stationery

Stationary: standing without moving; derived from Latin. (stare meaning stand)

Stationery: Writing materials; derived from Latin. (stare meaning stand)

29

Conservatism/Conservation

Conservatism: The belief that on the whole it is best not to make changes, as opposed to progressivism.

Conservation: Preservation of such things as our natural resources.

Derived from L. conservare="to keep without change"

30

Rout/Route

Rout: crushing defeat; disorderly retreat.

Route: way that is rough or broken.

Derived from Latin: rupta: broken.