Unit 2 Behavior Analysis Practice, Outcomes, Target behaviors, And Preliminary Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 Behavior Analysis Practice, Outcomes, Target behaviors, And Preliminary Assessment Deck (81):
1

The application of the principles of operant and respondent learning derived from the experimental analysis of behavior and the application of methods and procedures validated by ABA researchers to assess and improve socially important human behaviors

ABA Practice

2

Life changes that represent a person’s aspirations, dreams, and broad preferences

Outcomes

3

Leads to outcomes

Behavior and behavior change

4

those skills or abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his or her age and social group

Adaptive behavior

5

Any defined, observable, and measurable behavior which is the focus of assessment, analysis, and intervention.

Target behavior

6

Skill deficits, problems with strength of behavior, problems with performance, problems with stimulus control, problems with generality, behavior excesses

Types of problems with behavior

7

Helps individual achieve outcomes, behavior deficit makes the person too dependent on others, behavior is harmful, dangerous or illegal, behavior is controlled by meds or restraints, behavior excludes individual from social situations, behavior interferes with independent functioning.

Reasons for selecting target behavior

8

The treatment goals and the achieved outcomes are acceptable, socially relevant, and useful to the individual receiving services and to those who care about the individual

Social Validity

9

Characteristics of a good response definition are...

objective, clear, complete

10

The practitioner gathers basic information about the case, determines if behavioral services are appropriate, and if he/she is the appropriate provider of those services

Preliminary assessment

11

Determine who has the authority to give consent for services; Determine whether or not you have the permission, skills, time, and resources to begin assessment; Complete intake paperwork or the equivalent (may be done by cleric); Review records and available data; Meet client and begin observations; Document

Steps of preliminary assessment

12

One of the main goals for an ABA practitioner is to help the individual that he or she serves to…

A) achieve meaningful outcomes
B) meet their IEP goals
C) become indistinguishable from their peers
D) be more compliant with requests

A) achieve meaningful outcomes

ABA serves the needs of the individual receiving services, and strives to assist that individual in obtaining socially significant change that improves their life experience. This relates to outcomes.

13

Which of the following is a general task performed by ABA practitioners?
A) Long-term counseling
B) Functional assessment
C) Psychological diagnosis
D) Hypnotherapy

B) Functional assessment

Behavior analysts do not practice long-term counseling, hypnotherapy, or psychology

14

ABA practitioners can often provide….
A) Neuro-behavioral assessments
B) Consultations to organizations
C) Cognitive-behavioral therapy
D) All of these are services which can be provided by ABA practitioners

B) Consultations to organizations

15

ABA practice involves measurement. This means that behavior analysts always:
A) Measure consumer satisfaction via global rating scale surveys
B) Measure personality traits via projective tests and standardized personality inventories
C) All of these measurement procedures are a part of proper behavior analytic practice
D) Measure behavior using direct observation and quantification of the behavior of interest

D) Measure behavior using direct observation and quantification of the behavior of interest

16

Select the best definition of outcomes.

X = Specific changes in target behavior

Y = Changes in lifestyle that cause changes in a person’s level of self esteem

Z = Lifestyle changes that represent a person’s aspirations, dreams, and broad preferences

A) Z only
B) X only
C) X and Z but not Y
D) Y only

A) Z only

17

Which of the following is a good example of an outcome statement? I want to
A) receive an A on my next test
B) enhance my tact repertoire
C) decrease my non-compliant behavior
D) get a doctorate from the ABA program at Florida Tech

D) get a doctorate from the ABA program at Florida Tech

18

Which of the following is NOT an example of an outcome statement?

A) I want to have 5 friends with whom I can spend time every month
B) I want to have a long term loving relationship with a man – who also loves my dog!
C) I want to decrease my smoking behavior
D) I want to make a minimum of $100,000 a year

C) I want to decrease my smoking behavior

Reducing smoking may or may not represent a significant change in a person’s life, but does not qualify as an outcome statement since it outlines a specific change in a single behavior. Some behavior change statements can seem very close to being outcome statements, but can be easily discriminated if a specific behavior is identified as increasing or decreasing.

19

Which of the following is an example of an observable and measurable outcome?
A) Becoming a certified yoga instructor
B) Cleaning my aura so that it becomes pure
C) Reaching Nirvana
D) Making my chakras happy

A) Becoming a certified yoga instructor

20

In Applied Behavior Analysis, outcomes are achieved through:
A) Changes in intrinsic motivation
B) Behavior changes
C) Attitude changes
D) All of these are ways to achieve outcomes

B) Behavior changes

21

Which of the following statements about behavior and outcomes in ABA is true?
A) Outcomes lead to behavior change
B) Behavior changes are outcomes
C) Behavior leads to outcome statement changes
D) Behavior change leads to outcomes

D) Behavior change leads to outcomes

22

Adaptive behavior can be any of the following, EXCEPT:

A) Those skills and abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his or her age and social group
B) The absence of problem behavior in the community
C) None of these answers relate to adaptive behavior
D) The typical performance of individuals without disabilities in meeting environmental expectations

B) The absence of problem behavior in the community

23

Clair would like his son to attend a kindergarten classroom. What would be the best example of an adaptive behavior to teach Clair’s son?
A) Answering multiplication questions
B) Answering questions in a group with other kids, in a 20-minute circle time
C) Not screaming when asked to participate in group activities
D) Noncompliance with inappropriate requests from other children

B) Answering questions in a group with other kids, in a 20-minute circle time

24

Margaret says that she wants to get a job as a grocery-bagger at a supermarket. What could be an adaptive behavior that will help her achieve this goal?
A) Learning to sort items and place them in bags
B) Decreasing argumentative behavior when asked to fold clothes
C) Shaking hands with strangers (e.g., customers at the store)
D) Learning to add and subtract 2-digit numbers

A) Learning to sort items and place them in bags

25

A target behavior is any ___ behavior, which is the focus of assessment, analysis, and intervention.
A) Nonspecific, observable, and measurable
B) Defined, observable, but not necessarily measurable
C) Defined, observable, and measurable
D) Specific, but not necessarily observable

C) Defined, observable, and measurable

26

Select the most appropriate target behavior from the options below:
A) On-task behavior
B) Off-task behavior
C) Compliance
D) Completing math worksheets

D) Completing math worksheets

27

Which of the following would be the best target behavior?
A) Tantruming
B) Screaming, crying, and dropping to the floor
C) All of these would be good target behaviors
D) Noncompliance

B) Screaming, crying, and dropping to the floor

28

All of these are problems with behavior, except:

A) Skill deficits
B) Problems with stimulus control
C) Problems with hallucinations
D) Behavior excesses

C) Problems with hallucinations

29

When a person cannot do something, this is referred to as a X ; when a person will not do something, this is referred to as a Y .

A) X = problem with stimulus control; X = problem with generality
B) X = performance problem; X = Skill deficit
C) X = skill deficit; Y = problem with excess
D) X = skill deficit; Y = performance problem

D) X = skill deficit; Y = performance problem

30

At home, Jamal asks for “bubbles” when he wants to play with bubbles, as he was carefully taught to do by his parents. However, at school, Jamal grabs bottles of bubbles without asking, even though the teacher has requested that all students ask first before playing with them. In terms of appropriately requesting to play with bubbles, this scenario best exemplifies what type of problem with behavior?

A) A problem with performance
B) A problem with stimulus control
C) A skill deficit
D) A problem with generality

D) A problem with generality

31

Chris got a new job at the Goodwill on the East side of town which would require the use of public transit. However, Chris has never learned to use the bus before. His job coach had to teach him how to use the public transportation system. This type of problem with behavior can best be conceptualized as:
A) A skill deficit
B) A behavioral excess
C) A problem with generality
D) A problem with performance

A) A skill deficit

32

A performance problem refers to a behavior that the person:
A) Can do, but will not do it
B) Does too much
C) Cannot do even if their life depended on it
D) Does in the wrong situation

A) Can do, but will not do it

33

Which of the following is an adequate reason to target a behavior for change?
A) The person spends too much time doing a single activity
B) All of these are valid reasons to target behavior for change
C) The behavior deficit makes the person too dependent on others
D) People around the individual do not like the behavior that the person does

C) The behavior deficit makes the person too dependent on others

People often do not like things other people do – and so what? That is not a good enough reason for the person to have to change. People who spend “too much time” on a single activity sometimes become experts or virtuosos. This is not an adequate reason in and of itself to target behavior for change. However, if the behavior deficit makes the individual too dependent, then for the sake of that individual’s long term independence, some behavior may be appropriately targeted for change.

34

Which of the following is NOT a good reason to target an individual’s behavior for change? The person’s behavior:
A) is illegal
B) interferes with that person’s independent functioning
C) is strange, outrageous, or flamboyant
D) is controlled by medication or restraints of some kind

C) is strange, outrageous, or flamboyant

35

All of the following are examples of skill deficits EXCEPT:
A) Cannot use a microwave to cook simple meals
B) Does not discriminate between the letters p, d, q, and b.
C) Adds only single digit numbers
D) Hits others for attention

D) Hits others for attention

36

What is the best reason for targeting shoplifting as a behavior for change?

A) Is harmful to the person
B) All of these are reasons
C) Is illegal
D) Is immoral

C) Is illegal

37

Benny is 19 years old, has a mild to moderate intellectual disability, and currently lives in a 3-person group home. Which of the following of Benny’s behaviors would make sense for a behavior analyst to address as a “target behavior for reduction” in a formal behavior plan?

A) Sexual self-stimulation in his own bedroom at night
B) None of these behaviors are appropriate as a reduction target.
C) Listening to music (which his peers and group home staff consider “awful noise”) at a loud but reasonable volume in his bedroom in the afternoon before dinner
D) Non-compliance with requests from others

B) None of these behaviors are appropriate as a reduction target.

38

Which of the following would be a reason for selecting target behavior?

X = Zach is unable to bathe himself (although he is physically capable)

Y = Marshall strikes his head against the wall, leaving dents in the drywall

Z = Darcy says audible repetitive phrases throughout the day in all settings (including school)

A) Y and Z
B) X, Y and Z
C) X and Y
D) X and Z

B) X, Y and Z

39

Which of the following general guidelines apply to identifying a target behavior?

X = It must pass the Dead Person’s Test

Y = Broad categorical definitions are fully acceptable (such as aggression)

Z = One must be able to count it

A) X, Y and Z
B) Y and Z only
C) X and Z only
D) X and Y only

C) X and Z only

40

Which of the following is an appropriate guideline for targeting behavior for change? It is an acceptable practice to…
A) target a behavior to decelerate without necessarily targeting a replacement behavior for increase
B) set a target behavior for decrease as anything you want to see reduced, such as a decrease in off-task behavior.
C) be as specific as possible when defining a target behavior since in general, the more specific the response definition, the better
D) use common, broad labels such as SIB, aggression, and attention-getting behavior since they do not require further definition

C) be as specific as possible when defining a target behavior since in general, the more specific the response definition, the better

41

Social validity seeks to determine if the proposed intervention is acceptable to
A) Individuals served
B) Society
C) All of the above
D) Involved parties

C) All of the above

42

Johnny is 12-years old, and wears only slip-on shoes. He now states a very strong desire to play sports in school, which requires that he wear fully-laced athletic shoes (such as high-top sneakers or cleats). He will have to keep his own shoes tied during games, but until now, he has never learned to tie shoes (he was not compliant with the training as a toddler, and so the entire skill was thereafter avoided by simply providing him with non-tie shoes). With Johnny now in agreement, we identify a new formal learning objective: that John will learn to tie his shoes. This new objective most likely ignores which broad aspect of social validity:

X = Client satisfaction with the results

Y = The social significance of the goals

A) X only
B) Neither X nor Y
C) Y only
D) X and Y

B) Neither X nor Y

43

Emily decides to write a program to increase rate of reading demonstrated by three students who are lagging behind the class. Before she begins, Emily speaks to the students’ teacher to determine how much the students need to improve their performance in order to get back on par with the rest of the class. In terms of social validity, Emily is ensuring that the:
A) goals are shared by society at large
B) students are satisfied with the goals
C) goals are shared by others in the same setting
D) intervention is acceptable

C) goals are shared by others in the same setting

44

Daniel tells Joel to “please stop playing video games and get ready for school”. Daniel records Joel’s stopping video game playing as an instance of appropriate compliance with a school related request if and only if Joel stops playing within thirty seconds of the initial request. Daniel has thus included which of the following into the response definition for compliance with a school related request behavior:

A) Duration
B) Intensity
C) Latency
D) IRT

C) Latency

45

Which of the following steps should you do first when initiating a preliminary assessment?
A) Determine who can give consent
B) Review records
C) Complete intake paperwork
D) Determine whether or not to take the case

A) Determine who can give consent

46

All of the following are goals of the preliminary assessment, except

A) Determine if other types of services (e.g., medical) may be needed
B) Begin to identify the problem
C) All of these are goals of the preliminary assessment
D) Determine if whether or not ABA services are needed (or wanted)

C) All of these are goals of the preliminary assessment

47

What is one of the main goals of ABA practitioners?
A) Help the individuals we serve to comply with all requests
B) Help the individuals we serve to have a better quality of life
C) Help the individuals we serve to get whatever they want
D) Help caregivers lead easier lives

B) Help the individuals we serve to have a better quality of life

48

Which of the following is NOT one of the tasks performed by ABA practitioners?
A) Implementing intervention programs
B) Designing intervention programs
C) Evaluating intervention programs
D) Projective testing prior to intervention

D) Projective testing prior to intervention

49

ABA practice involves direct observation. This means:

A) Direct observation includes all of these activities for a behavior analyst
B) Looking at data others collected, but not necessarily observing the behavior directly
C) Asking caregivers about the behavior of interest
D) Looking at or observing behavior in some direct way

D) Looking at or observing behavior in some direct way

50

ABA practice involves:
A) Manipulation of behavior
B) Manipulation of people
C) Manipulation of Tacts and Intraverbals
D) Manipulation of antecedents and consequences

D) Manipulation of antecedents and consequences

51

“Life changes that represent a person’s aspirations, dreams, and broad preferences.” This statement best defines:
A) Specific changes in behavior
B) Outcomes
C) Short term objectives
D) Functional analysis

B) Outcomes

52

Which of the following is a good example of an outcome?
A) I want to own my own animal shelter
B) I want to pet a dog
C) I want to learn to tact 100 animals correctly
D) I want to stay home from school today and go horseback riding

A) I want to own my own animal shelter

53

Which of the following is NOT an example of an observable and measurable outcome?
A) Completing the running of a Boston Marathon
B) Obtaining a medical degree
C) Living in a supported living apartment with one roommate
D) Living a fulfilling life with a perfect job

D) Living a fulfilling life with a perfect job

54

X is an observable and measurable goal, while Y is not.

A) X = Being the best student I can be; Y = being the best self I can be
B) X = Graduating with a Master's degree; Y = being the best student I can be
C) X = Being the best student I can be; Y = graduating with a Master's degree
D) X = Graduating with a Master's degree; Y = getting a job as a clinical supervisor

B) X = Graduating with a Master's degree; Y = being the best student I can be

55

How are outcomes achieved in Applied Behavior Analysis?
A) By changing attitudes
B) All of these are ways to achieve outcomes
C) By changing cognitive structures through counseling
D) By changing behavior

D) By changing behavior

56

Which of the following statements describes the relationship between outcomes and behavior change?
A) All of these statements are true
B) Behavior change is the same thing as an outcome
C) Behavior change leads to outcomes
D) Behavior only changes when outcome targets are set

C) Behavior change leads to outcomes

57

Those skills and abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his or her age and social group are otherwise known as:
A) Community-oriented behavior
B) Empowering behavior
C) Adaptive behavior
D) Assertive behavior

C) Adaptive behavior

58

Andrew is an adult with disabilities who would love to learn how to surf. What would be an example of an adaptive behavior to target for Andrew?
A) Swimming at least a quarter mile without stopping
B) Learning the names of all of the oceans
C) Shopping for stylish surfer shorts and sunglasses
D) Tolerating wearing snorkel gear for at least 30 minutes

A) Swimming at least a quarter mile without stopping

59

Joseph would like to go out on a date with Gaby. Which of the following would be an adaptive behavior that can help Joseph?
A) Asking Gaby for her phone number
B) All of these are adaptive behaviors in this scenario
C) Improved personal hygiene
D) Maintain a conversation about a single topic for at least 5- to 10-minutes

B) All of these are adaptive behaviors in this scenario

60

Any defined, observable, and measurable behavior, which is the focus of assessment, analysis, and intervention is also called a(n):

A) Outcome
B) Adaptive behavior
C) Target behavior
D) Cusp

C) Target behavior

61

Choose the most appropriate target for behavior change:
A) Biting other people
B) Impulse control
C) Aggression
D) All of these are appropriate targets for change

A) Biting other people

62

Select the most appropriate target behavior from the options below:
A) Punching, slapping, or scratching others
B) Respect for others
C) Physical aggression
D) Hurting others

A) Punching, slapping, or scratching others

63

Which of the following describes a general type of problem with behavior

A) Hitting others
B) Lack of appropriate stimulus control
C) Repeated jumping during class time
D) Shouting above conversational volume level

B) Lack of appropriate stimulus control

64

All of the following are examples of problems with the strength of behavior, EXCEPT
A) Does not do frequently (often) enough
B) Lacks mastery
C) Lacks fluency
D) All of these pertain to the strength of a behavior

D) All of these pertain to the strength of a behavior

65

Bob usually tells very edgy and explicit jokes to his co-workers when they go out drinking after work on Friday nights. His jokes typically result in a lot of laughter, and people at the bar, both co-workers and even strangers, often tell him how he should be a professional comic. Bob also tells very similar jokes during interdisciplinary team meetings, for which he has been repeatedly reprimanded. Bob’s telling explicit jokes during workplace meetings represents what kind of problem with behavior?

A) A problem with stimulus control
B) A performance problem
C) This is not a behavior problem
D) A skill deficit

A) A problem with stimulus control

66

Program monitoring checklists indicate that the group home staff-persons implement behavior plans with an accuracy of less than 50%. All staff had been fully trained, and at one time they demonstrated a much higher percentage of accurate implementation. The house managers decided to implement an incentive system: each week, staff persons who implement behavior plans with at least 90% accuracy (on monitoring forms) receive a 2% “incentive” bonus. Which type of problem with behavior was this incentive system designed to address?
A) Behavior excesses
B) Problems with stimulus control
C) Skill deficits
D) Problems with performance

D) Problems with performance

67

Initially, Mark did not initiate hand washing. After much training Mark was able to wash his hands whenever his hands were dirty, right before he ate, and after using the bathroom. Recent data indicates that he is washing his hands at least 50 times per day even when his hands are clean. With regards to the most current data, the problem with behavior can be best described as:
A) A problem with stimulus control
B) A skill deficit
C) A behavior excess
D) A problem with performance

C) A behavior excess

68

Which of the following is, in and of itself, fully adequate as a reason to address a person’s behavior as a target for change?
A) The behavior is preventing the individual from accessing most regular community activities/natural social reinforcers.
B) Parents do not approve of their son, and want him to do different things
C) All of these are valid reasons to target behavior for change
D) The person expresses a desire to engage in risky, but legal behavior, which could potentially result in injury, illness, or possibly even death

A) The behavior is preventing the individual from accessing most regular community activities/natural social reinforcers.

Parents of adult children may only be consulted for “approval” of anything if they have officially obtained guardianship – and the incorrect answer here does not (a) specify that the parents are guardians or (b) specify what behavior the parents want to have changed. Thus, the answer regarding parental approval is incorrect on at least two counts. Engaging in risky behavior is a choice that most of us make freely at some point in our lives—parachute jumping, skiing, scuba diving—these are all dangerous activities. They do not constitute a reason, in and of themselves, to seek behavioral services. But when a person’s behavior blocks that person from experiencing a naturally broad social environment, that behavior should at least be evaluated to see if the person might want to learn other social skills, which would provide more normalized access to the community at large.

69

Complete the following sentence: If you target a behavior for reduction…
A) You must provide the individual with a lot of different types of stimuli
B) You can only do so via the use of some kind of punishment in our treatment package
C) You must target another behavior as a replacement for increase
D) You must avoid using punishment at all costs

C) You must target another behavior as a replacement for increase

70

Which of the following is not a good behavior to target for change
A) Buying correct sized clothing
B) Using a commercial dishwasher
C) Hitting others
D) Depression

D) Depression

71

At a local Wendy’s restaurant, Terry begins to scream loudly, laugh loudly and jump around. As a result, people point and laugh. What is the best reason for selecting screaming loudly, laughing loudly, and jumping around in public as a target behavior for reduction?
A) Can harm property
B) Can get arrested
C) Can harm other people
D) Can result in exclusion of the individual from the community

D) Can result in exclusion of the individual from the community

72

Which of the following is the BEST example of setting a behavior change target?
A) Creed will increase his productivity at the office
B) Creed will complete three quality assurance reports per shift
C) Creed will increase his on-task time at the office
D) Creed will decrease his downtime at the office

B) Creed will complete three quality assurance reports per shift

73

Which of the following is the best among the following choices for a target behavior?

A) Compliance to academic requests
B) Non-compliance in class
C) Not following directions
D) Not following directions within 5” of a demand

A) Compliance to academic requests

74

Which of the following is a good target behavior?
A) Aggression towards others
B) Hitting others
C) Angry movements toward others
D) Intent to harm others

B) Hitting others

75

Johnny is 12-years old, and wears only slip-on shoes. He now states a desire to play sports in school, which require fully-laced athletic shoes (such as high-top sneakers or cleats). He has never learned to tie his shoes. Stating that John should learn to tie his shoes most likely ignores which aspect of social validity:

X = Client satisfaction with the results

Y = The social significance of the goals

A) Y only
B) Neither X nor Y
C) X and Y
D) X only

B) Neither X nor Y

76

Jose writes a program to improve public speaking for one of his graduate students. Before he implements the program he asks her if she approves of the point system he is going to put in-place. What aspect of social validity is Jose assessing:
A) Client satisfaction with the end result
B) Client satisfaction with the intervention
C) None of the above
D) The significance of the goal

B) Client satisfaction with the intervention

77

I see Mark talk to peers and make them laugh. I then watch Mark as he engages in a complicated handshake that makes the peers smile. I take careful notes on how Mark is interacting with his peers so to assist in my writing of a good social skills program for a different student (for whom I am providing behavior services) in Mark’s class. Which strategy for increasing social validity does this exemplify?

A) Questionnaire
B) Observing competent peers
C) Interviewing experts
D) None of the above

B) Observing competent peers

78

Stating that “episodes of punching others should be recorded as separate episodes if and only if two minutes have elapsed since the last occurrence of a punch”, incorporates which aspect into the definition:

A) Latency
B) IRT
C) Frequency
D) Duration

B) IRT

79

Only counting a face slap as self-injury if it leaves a red mark on the skin would be an example of accounting for____ in the response definition.:
A) Duration
B) Intensity
C) Latency
D) IRT

B) Intensity

80

All of the following are steps to completing a preliminary assessment, except:

A) Complete initial intake paperwork
B) Determine who has authority to give consent
C) These are all steps of a preliminary assessment
D) Identify the function of the target behavior

D) Identify the function of the target behavior

81

When determining whether or not to take a case, which of the following is NOT one of the questions you must answer?
A) Do you have the necessary resources and support of the parties involved in the case
B) Do you have the time to commit to the case
C) Do you have the necessary skills and experience
D) All of these are considerations in determining whether or not to take a case

D) All of these are considerations in determining whether or not to take a case