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Flashcards in Unit 3 Measurement Deck (67):

The quantitative results of deliberate, planned, and usually controlled observation



Singular form of the term ‘data’




Characteristics of a good response definition


Directly measure a dimensional quantity of behavior

Continuous response measures


Discontinuous response measures

Do not measure bx directly


Dimensional quantities of continuous response measures



Record time observation began
Count the responses
Record time observation ended
Divide: Count/unit of time
Report as rate per unit of time

Event recording


Record time observation began
Record each antecedent
Record each response
Record time observation ended
Report as (Responses/Antecedents)/unit of time

Event recording of restricted operants


Total amount of time an individual engages in an activity

Duration per session


Amount of time a target behavior occupies

Duration per occurrence


Specify when to start recording (at the onset or the offset of the stimulus).
Specify when to stop recording (at the beginning or end of the response cycle).

Latency Recording


Start timing at the END of the response cycle.
Stop timing at the BEGINNING of the next response cycle.

Inter-response time recording


When given the rate, provided that the variability is not too great, or that there are no outliers.

Estimating IRT’s


Percent occurrence
Trials to criterion
Discrete categorization
Partial interval recording
Whole interval recording
Momentary time sampling

Dimensionless quantities of discontinuous response measures


Similar to event recording of a restricted or discriminated operant which has been converted into a percent.

Percent occurrence


The number of consecutive opportunities to respond required to achieve a performance standard.
Record each opportunity to respond until the performance standard is met.

Trials to criterion


1. Determine what one trial will be
2. Decide how to report (number of trials or number of block trials)
3. Record count as the measure
4. Present data

Trials to criterion steps


A method for classifying responses into discrete categories

Discrete categorization


A discontinuous response measure in which a recording session is broken into short intervals of time. The observer records whether the behavior occurred at any time during the interval

Partial interval recording


A discontinuous response measure in which a recording session is broken into short intervals of time. At the end of each interval the observer records whether the target behavior occurred throughout the interval

Whole interval recording


A discontinuous response measure in which a response is recorded as occurring only if it occurs at the point in time in which an interval ends.

Momentary time sampling


A group of individuals is observed at the end of an interval
Count how many of individuals are engaging in the target behavior(s)
Compare with the total number of individuals
Percent of individuals engaging in behavior(s)



The dimensional quantity of interest.
The estimated rate of the behavior.
Whether to measure responses or episodes.

Factors to consider when selecting a response measure


Used for Measuring the results of behavior when you can't observe

Permanent products


The consistency of measurement



The coefficient of agreement between two or more independent observers.
Usually calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of agreements by the total number of agreements plus disagreements, then multiplying by 100.

Interobserver agreement


Competence of new observers
Detecting observer drift
Validate collection methods
Increase confidence that interventions are responsible for behavior change

Uses for IOA


The degree to which an intervention is implemented as described/designated

IV integrity


The two main methods of IOA

Total count
Percent agreement


Total agreement in each interval / Number of intervals X 100

Mean count per interval


# of intervals with 100% agreement / Number of intervals X 100

Exact count per interval


IOA should be at or above



IOA should be collected and scored for a minimum of ___ of observations



Which of the following is a fundamental property of behavior?
A) Celeration
B) Repeatability
C) Rate
D) Frequency

B) Repeatability


Temporal locus means that a single response:

A) can reoccur
B) occurs at a point in time
C) occupies time
D) occurs infrequently

B) occurs at a point in time


Expressing temporal extent as a dimensional quantity would require a measurement of:
A) celeration
B) latency
C) duration
D) rate

C) duration


All of the following dimensional quantities are based on the combination of two fundamental properties (repeatability and temporal locus), EXCEPT:
A) Duration
B) Rate
C) Celeration

A) Duration


Frank, a BCBA, evaluates a potential client and is interested in decreasing both the number of tantrums and how long the tantrums last. He should measure:
A) Frequency and latency
B) Duration and IRT
C) Latency and Duration
D) Frequency and duration

D) Frequency and duration


Which of the following is the best example of data?
A) Statement: “Client appears to have made progress toward meeting an objective”
B) Estimated number of minutes a baby cries
C) Time spent pacing the corridors
D) Communication from a principal describing a student’s “attitude problems”

C) Time spent pacing the corridors


Kristin puts a new behavior plan in place. Once training is completed, she wants to make sure staff members will now be collecting data accurately. She sits in on therapy sessions, observing and taking notes on staff performance (including data collection). The effectiveness of her evaluation method (pertaining to the long-term accuracy of staff data collection) may be most influenced by which of the following factors?
A) Reactivity
B) Complexity of the response definition
C) Staff compliance with protocols
D) Staff training regimen

A) Reactivity


Which of the following variables is likely to have a positive impact on the collection of accurate data?
A) Very frequent collection of data required
B) Too many students in a class
C) Excessively busy data collectors
D) Concise response definitions

D) Concise response definitions


All of the following are characteristics of every good response definition, except:

A) Clear
B) Complete
C) Functional
D) Objective

C) Functional


Shane’s program contains the following response definition: “Non-compliance is defined as the failure to respond within 15-seconds”. This definition is…
A) Acceptable because it clearly defines the target behavior of non-compliance
B) Not acceptable because it does not identify the type of evocative stimulus to which the person failed to respond.
C) Not acceptable, because it does not pass the dead-man’s test
D) An appropriate definition

C) Not acceptable, because it does not pass the dead-man’s test


When structuring data collection on “tantrum behavior”, a behavior analyst is likely to utilize:

A) Primarily indirect measures of dimensionless quantities
B) Latency, IRT, and time sample data on single topographies only
C) Duration measures of defined episodes
D) Pure frequency measures, exclusively

C) Duration measures of defined episodes


While it may be possible to quantify and measure assault _______, one could never appropriately measure ______ to do harm.
A) intent; attempts
B) attempts; intent
C) frequency; attempts
D) and battery ; threats

B) attempts; intent


When comparing inter-observer agreement (IOA) for direct continuous measures of dimensional quantities of behavior versus IOA for indirect discontinuous measures of dimensionless quantities of behavior, which of the following statements is true? IOA tends to have…

A) no relation to, and not be influenced by the data collection method
B) a higher percentage of agreement for direct measures of dimensional quantities
C) about the same percentage of agreement for both general methods
D) a higher percentage of agreement for indirect measures of dimensionless quantities

D) a higher percentage of agreement for indirect measures of dimensionless quantities

Even though the direct, continuous measurement methods (of dimensional quantities of behavior—rate, IRT, latency, etc) are generally preferred as better representations of the actual occurrence of a target behavior, the indirect methods (partial interval, whole interval, momentary time sample) tend to yield higher IOA scores, especially for higher rate behaviors . This makes some sense, since these methods tend to require less staff training, and they demand less attention on the part of the observer. Continuous measures demand undivided attention by the observer to make absolutely accurate counts, versus a simple evaluation of occurrence/non-occurrence during an pre-set time interval.


In the 4th edition task list, the term countability (as a dimensional quantity, defined by Johnston and Pennypacker) is now referred to as ___________.

A) Celeration
B) Latency
C) Duration
D) Frequency

D) Frequency


Which of the following terms all describe one of the two broad categories of data measurement
A) Direct, dimensionless, discontinuous
B) Indirect, dimensionless, continuous
C) Direct, dimensional, continuous
D) Indirect, dimensional, discontinuous

C) Direct, dimensional, continuous


Ray is a student in a class with 26 other students, one teacher, and 2 teacher’s aides. Which of the following response measures would be the best for his teacher to use to collect data on Ray’s headbutt to others behavior, which his teacher estimates occurs less than 7 times per month (1-2 times a week or so)?

A) Partial interval recording
B) Whole interval recording
C) Duration recording
D) Event recording

D) Event recording


Which of the following factors is necessary for event recording of “free operants” to yield useful and representative data? Each response…

W = should have a long duration

X = must be dependent on specific antecedent evocative stimuli

Y = must have a clear and well defined beginning and end

Z = should have a reasonably similar (and preferably short) duration

A) Y and Z
B) X only
C) X, Y, and Z
D) W and X

A) Y and Z


Enrique occasionally yells in class. Enrique’s teacher records the number of seconds that each yell lasts. She is using _________ to track yelling.
A) Total duration per session
B) Duration per occurrence
C) Partial interval recording

B) Duration per occurrence


Dave’s Dad measures the time between Dave being asked to take out the garbage and his actual removal of the garbage bag from the kitchen (followed by his taking it to the garage garbage bin). What type of data collection does this exemplify?
A) This is not an example of data collection
B) Frequency
C) Latency
D) Not enough information

C) Latency


Partial interval recording, whole interval recording, and momentary time sampling all typically…
A) overestimate the occurrence of the behavior
B) underestimate the occurrence of the behavior
C) are reported as a percentage
D) rely mostly on verbal reports about the behavior

C) are reported as a percentage


Which of the following statements describes an improper type of IRT measurement? Measure the time between…

A) the end of one response and the beginning of the next
B) All of these are proper forms of IRT data
C) the beginning of one response and the beginning of the next
D) the beginning of one response and the end of the next

D) the beginning of one response and the end of the next


Harvey bangs his head against hard surfaces and slaps the back of his head. He has worn a helmet for several years to protect his head from injury. The BCBA wants to fade the helmet out, if possible. She removes the helmet and times how long he takes to start engaging in self-injurious behavior. She collects data over 10 trials, and her measurement provides a range of data, between 2 and 15 seconds. What type of response measure did she use?
A) Duration
B) Partial interval recording
C) Latency

C) Latency


Which of the following would yield data as percent occurrence?

A) Recording the number of backward chaining sessions required before Jay brushes his teeth independently, 10 times in a row.
B) Recording whether (+) or not (-) Jay brushed teeth after meal.
C) Timing how soon after a meal Jay brushes his teeth.
D) Recording the level of prompting required for Jay to put toothpaste on a toothbrush during tooth brushing.

B) Recording whether (+) or not (-) Jay brushed teeth after meal.


One major limitation to percent occurrence as a measurement technique would be that the reported percentage data will most likely not accurately represent the target behavior if there are ________.

A) too many people taking data
B) too many opportunities to respond
C) too few opportunities to respond
D) targeted responses for acquisition only

C) too few opportunities to respond


Bobby’s aggressions are brief but intense. If aggression occurs at 5:00, 5:30, 7:00, and 8:00, what is the average IRT?
A) 60 minutes
B) 75 minutes
C) 90 minutes
D) 30 minutes

A) 60 minutes


Jose is training a new behavior technician to implement discrete trials. He watches her run a trial with a behavior analyst playing the part of a client. When the new tech is finished, he marks on a piece of paper whether or not she completed all of the teaching steps correctly. If she does not complete all steps correctly, Jose provides feedback on correct and incorrect aspects of her performance, and has her try again. Jose continues to record the number of teaching trials required until she can complete all of the steps independently. He then examines how many teaching trials it took before she reached independence. Jose is collecting data using which of the following strategies:
B) Latency recording
C) Trials-to-criterion
D) Partial interval recording

C) Trials-to-criterion


Estimate the IRT if the rate of aggression is 12 times per hour.
A) 5 minutes
B) 8 minutes
C) 7 minutes
D) 6 minutes

A) 5 minutes


Dr. Wine examined Jeff's self-inflicted injuries. He coded each injury as either a "1" (minor = bruising or swelling), a "2" (moderate = laceration), or a "3" (severe - concussion or broken bone). Dr. Wine was using:
A) Event recording.
B) Direct measurement of dimensional quantities of behavior.
C) Discrete categorization.
D) Anecdotal recording.

C) Discrete categorization.


Select the discontinuous indirect response measure that would be most appropriate to use to measure a moderate rate behavior, targeted for reduction.
A) Frequency
B) Whole interval recording
C) Latency
D) Partial interval recording.

D) Partial interval recording.


For most behavior, partial interval recording tends to X its occurrence; for very high rate behavior, partial interval recording tends to Y its occurrence

A) X = Underestimate Y = Overestimate
B) X = Underestimate Y = Underestimate
C) X = Overestimate Y = Overestimate
D) X = Overestimate Y = Underestimate

D) X = Overestimate Y = Underestimate


Ele’s timer goes off every 3 minutes. She looks up to see if Patrick is engaging in cooperative play with others (during play time). If yes, she marks the data sheet with a “+”. If he is not, she marks it with a “-“. If he is out of the room, she marks it with a “0”. Ele is engaging in what activity?
A) Using 3-minute whole interval recording
B) Taking 3-minute momentary time sample data
C) Taking 3-minute partial interval data
D) Using a 3-minute fixed interval schedule

B) Taking 3-minute momentary time sample data


This type of discontinuous data collection procedure indicates whether or not a target behavior “occurred” throughout an entire timed interval, without stopping for even one second.

A) Partial interval recording
B) Momentary time sample
C) Interval recording
D) Whole interval recording

D) Whole interval recording


Julie’s class is out on the playground. Every five minutes a timer goes off and she looks up and counts the number of children playing appropriately, and the number of children roughhousing. Julie is using which data collection method?
A) Event recording
C) Partial interval recording
D) Momentary time sampling



Which of the following is NOT an example of a permanent product?
A) Pieces of gum stuck on the bottom of a desk
B) Soda pop cans in recycle bin
C) Number of folded towels on a shelve
D) Licking a lollipop

D) Licking a lollipop