Unit 7 Overview of Behavioral Assessment, Indirect Assessment, and Preference and Reinforcer Assessments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 7 Overview of Behavioral Assessment, Indirect Assessment, and Preference and Reinforcer Assessments Deck (95):
1

Choose the phrase that best completes the definition of behavioral assessment. A systematic gathering of information in order to make data-based decisions regarding:
A) Behavior and the environment
B) Treatment efficacy
C) Behavior
D) Function-based interventions

A) Behavior and the environment

2

Gertie conducts a behavioral assessment for 9-year old Kenny, who has been diagnosed with “Intermittent Explosive Disorder”. During her timed direct observations, she counts how many times Kenny, “verbally threatens to harm others”. Which behavioral assessment characteristic does this single fact demonstrate?
A) Behavior is, in itself, the issue; it is not just a symptom of something else.
B) Behavior is contextually defined by diagnostic criteria, set in a DSM manual.
C) Behavior, as the result of an underlying disorder, is intrinsically variable.
D) Behavioral symptoms arise from formal diagnostic categories.

A) Behavior is, in itself, the issue; it is not just a symptom of something else.

3

Carole is conducting a behavioral assessment on Dom, a 20-year male, diagnosed with Schizophrenia NOS (not otherwise specified). Which statement would be the most appropriate to include as a part of Carole’s behavioral assessment summary report.
A) Dom hears voices in that tell him, “Staff are going to hurt you.”
B) Dom engages in behavior according to directions from auditory hallucinations.
C) Dom listens to the voices in his head which are reliable antecedents to aggression.
D) Dom reports hearing auditory hallucinations such as “clown laughter” and warnings about staff hurting him.

D) Dom reports hearing auditory hallucinations such as “clown laughter” and warnings about staff hurting him.

4

What does the term “high fidelity” mean in Hawkins quasi-funnel analysis of behavior assessment
A) Focuses on a narrow set of response classes
B) Looks at the greatest amount of information
C) Most accurate representation of a target behavior
D) Focuses on a broad set of response classes

C) Most accurate representation of a target behavior

5

All of these are examples of types of behavioral assessments except:A) All of these are types of behavioral assessment
B) Social skills assessment
C) Vocational skills assessment
D) Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory

D) Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory

6

BCBA Sandra received a referral for a functional assessment: Jessica, a 26-year old female in a 4-bedroom group home, is engaging in what her support coordinator considers “high-risk behavior”, which is also “violating the house rules” of her residential environment. Which of the following would make the most sense to target for evaluation as part of a functional behavioral assessment? Jessica’s…
A) lack of understanding of the dangers of sexually transmitted disease.
B) calling 900 numbers to invite strangers to her group home for intimate contact
C) low self-concept mediating poor decision making
D) promiscuous behavior

B) calling 900 numbers to invite strangers to her group home for intimate contact

7

The best example of an appropriate statement in a functional behavioral assessment is…
A) Dom hits his roommate when denied access to a requested item; hitting often results in access to the item.
B) Dom tends to hit his roommate in order to get access to preferred items, due to his history of being spoiled by his parents
C) Dom engages in aggression towards his roommate due to antecedent auditory hallucinations which tell him to hurt others.
D) Dom’s Schizophrenia prevents self-control and compels him to hit others when he does not get what he wants

A) Dom hits his roommate when denied access to a requested item; hitting often results in access to the item.

8

A referral was made for Jerry to be placed in a community-based group home. Due to Jerry’s history of problem behaviors, his support coordinator obtained funding for a behavior analyst, Jess, who reviewed all records received, used paper and pencil assessment tools, interviewed previous staff, behavior assistants, the last behavior analyst, and the job coach. After collecting this information, Jess wrote an individual behavior plan and trained staff on its implementation. Upon Jerry’s arrival, the following Tuesday, she introduced herself for the first time, and staff immediately implemented his individual behavior plan. What is your evaluation of Jess’ assessment methods?
A) She did a great job collecting the relevant information, developing a behavior plan, and training staff to implement it.
B) Her assessment was woefully incomplete. The behavior plan she wrote was not based on any direct observations, and thus cannot be considered ABA of any kind.
C) We do not have enough information to make an evaluation on Jess’ assessment methods as there no information regarding the effectiveness of the plan.
D) Her assessment was complete and she wrote a behavior plan based on its findings, but should have taken baseline first before implementing the program.

B) Her assessment was woefully incomplete. The behavior plan she wrote was not based on any direct observations, and thus cannot be considered ABA of any kind.

9

Identify any indirect assessment methods, below.
W = Records review
X = Narrative recording
Y = Questionnaires
Z = Functional Assessment Interview
A) W, Y, and Z
B) W and Y
C) X and Z
D) W, X, Y, and Z

A) W, Y, and Z

10

Rob is conducting a behavioral assessment on Stuart, a teenager, who lives at home with his parents. During his first visit, Rob notices holes in many of the walls; some have been repaired, others not. Additionally, all the kitchen cabinet doors are locked except for two, which have been torn off their hinges. Stuart’s mother tells you, “We’ve never been able to catch him breaking the cabinets.” What type of data collection method may be necessary to capture information on “breaking cabinet doors”?
A) Measuring dimensional quantities of behavior
B) Scatterplot
C) ABC data collection
D) Permanent product recording

D) Permanent product recording

11

Judy (the behavior analyst) has begun an indirect assessment on Kimmy, an 8-year old girl. Judy asks Kimmy’s mom, “What type of things does Kimmy like? I mean, for instance, are there TV shows she always wants to watch?” Judy goes on to ask about Kimmy’s favorite foods, preferred toys and games, favorite places to go, etc. Judy is most likely trying to:
A) Build rapport by making small talk
B) Identify preferred stimuli which may function as potential reinforcers
C) Gather information about the function of the target behavior
D) Figure out what events may predict the occurrence of target behavior

B) Identify preferred stimuli which may function as potential reinforcers

12

Gertie just completed all of her indirect assessment interviews by talking to Chris’ parents. She has also read Chris’ record. What should she do next?
A) Review her notes and any voice recordings
B) Decide whether or not to continue with a more comprehensive assessment
C) Summarize her findings, including a description of likely target behavior(s), and important environmental variables
D) All of these activities should be done after an interview

D) All of these activities should be done after an interview

13

In ABA, conducting a formal reinforcer assessment is important because…
A) we must identify which items to take away to decrease problem behavior
B) we must identify which consequences always reinforce a person
C) what people say about their own sources of reinforcement is not important
D) reinforcers can be idiosyncratic

D) reinforcers can be idiosyncratic

14

When a person is given the opportunity to choose between various stimuli, or when that person is otherwise presented with the opportunity to interact with a single stimulus, that person responds in some way. The study of a series of those responses is also known as a…
A) social validity assessment
B) all of these answers are correct
C) stimulus preference assessment
D) reinforcer assessment

C) stimulus preference assessment

15

All of the following are ways to identify preferences in Applied Behavior Analysis, except:A) Reinforcer sampling
B) Functional analysis
C) Indirect (informant-based) assessment
D) Naturalistic direct observation

B) Functional analysis

16

Marlessa wants to do a preference assessment on Clara. She begins by reading Clara’s record, talking to Clara’s family members and teachers, and even a direct interview with Clara herself. Which of the following types of preference assessment is Marlessa doing?

X = Indirect assessment

Y = Direct naturalistic assessment

Z = Reinforcer sampling

A) Z only
B) X only
C) Y only
D) X and Y

B) X only

17

Which of the following is not true about naturalistic, direct observation?A) Relies on interviews and questionnaires in the natural environment
B) Determines high-probability responses
C) Relies, in part, on the Premack Principle
D) Uses direct observation of daily activities in the natural environments

A) Relies on interviews and questionnaires in the natural environment

18

Which of the following is a disadvantage of naturalistic, direct observations?
A) Invalid
B) Time consuming
C) Subjective
D) Unreliable

B) Time consuming

19

Which of the following preference assessment approaches uses systematic presentations of different arrays of stimuli?
A) Indirect (informant-based)
B) Naturalistic, direct observation
C) Reinforcer sampling
D) Concurrent operant arrangement

C) Reinforcer sampling

20

All of these are advantages of reinforcer sampling procedures, except:A) Reliable
B) Accommodates a wide range of stimuli (including new stimuli)
C) Time efficient
D) Objective

B) Accommodates a wide range of stimuli (including new stimuli)

21

What is the purpose of reinforcer assessment procedures?
A) Identify reinforcers
B) Assess conditioned reinforcers only (unconditioned reinforcers are always reinforcing)
C) Identify preferences
D) Identify both preferences and reinforcers

A) Identify reinforcers

22

Typically, a ___ assessment is conducted first, followed by a ___ assessment.A) Preference; Punisher
B) Reinforcer; Preference
C) Punisher; Preference
D) Preference; Reinforcer

D) Preference; Reinforcer

23

Which of the following is true regarding single-operant arrangements?
A) Multiple tasks are available during some phases
B) Only one task is available during all phases
C) Multiple tasks are available during all phases
D) Only one task is available during some phases

B) Only one task is available during all phases

24

If responding increases during phases in which a task is consequated with a particular stimulus, and it does not increase (or decreases) during phases in which a task is not consequated with that same stimulus, that stimulus is most likely functioning as a(n) __________ stimulus:A) preferred
B) neutral
C) reinforcing
D) appetitive

C) reinforcing

25

In this reinforcer assessment procedure, two identical tasks are presented to the subject, but task completion of either task is not followed by any consequence during baseline. In the next phase, these same tasks are presented to the subject, and completion of each separate task is consequated with a distinct, task-specific (potential reinforcing) stimulus. The differential effect of these two different stimuli on “task completion” of the two separate tasks is evaluated. This describes a _________ arrangement.A) Free-operant
B) Single operant
C) Progressive ratio
D) Concurrent operant

D) Concurrent operant

26

Research has demonstrated that which of the following statements is true in relation to stimulus preference assessments?
X = Single stimulus assessments tend to show a uniformly high approach to (selection of) various presented stimuli

Y = Paired stimulus assessments show greater differentiation between stimuli than single stimulus assessments, in terms of approach (selection)

Z = Single stimulus assessments tend to result in higher false positives, in terms of stimulus preference (approach)

A) X and Y but not Z
B) Y only
C) X, Y and Z
D) X only

C) X, Y and Z

27

The multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO) procedure and the paired stimulus (PS) procedure are alike in that they:
A) are both prone to false positives
B) identify highly preferred items that may not function as reinforcers
C) require very little time to complete
D) effectively create a preference hierarchy

D) effectively create a preference hierarchy

28

In terms of the stability of preference, research suggests that:

A) Preferences may or may not change over time
B) Preferences will change over time
C) No conclusive research exists
D) Preferences remain stable over time

B) Preferences will change over time

29

The primary advantage of the free operant preference assessment is:
A) It creates a hierarchy of preferences
B) It is the only assessment to prove reliable in repeated trials
C) Multiple preferred stimuli are selected in one trial
D) Items to not have to be taken away from the subject after each trial

D) Items to not have to be taken away from the subject after each trial

30

When compared to the paired stimulus (PS) assessment method, both multiple stimulus assessments (MSW and MSWO) share the advantage of:
A) Identifying large numbers of moderately preferred items
B) Creating a hierarchy of preferences
C) Screening out items that will not maintain behavior over the long-term
D) Being relatively fast in terms of time to complete

D) Being relatively fast in terms of time to complete

31

Research has demonstrated that to identify the most number of potential reinforcers, you can use the X preference assessment, and to identify stimuli that are likely to be the most potent reinforcers, you can use the Y preference assessment method.

A) X = MSW Y = paired stimulus
B) X = single stimulus Y = paired stimulus
C) X = MSW Y = MSWO
D) X = paired stimulus Y = single stimulus

B) X = single stimulus Y = paired stimulus

Single stimulus preference assessment has a lot of false positives due to the relative likelihood approach to all (or most) single stimuli, but it provides a list of a lot of possible reinforcers, although almost no information about the relative potency of each. Paired stimulus assessment provides the most extensive and accurate hierarchy, so you can identify the stimuli most likely to function as reinforcers. The MSW also identifies the single most preferred stimulus (which is therefore most likely to be a reinforcer), but it does not provide a very broad array of possible reinforcers. The MSWO provides the best of both worlds in a way...it provides both list of possible reinforcers and a hierarchy of likely potency, and does so relatively quickly. However, it does require that preferred items be taken from the subject over and over again, and can result in undifferentiated data at times.

32

If I conducted an MSWO, and no clear preference hierarchy emerged from the data (in other words, the percentages of preference were muddled and undifferentiated between all the stimuli), this most likely indicates that:
A) Another MSWO should be conducted, after the client has been exposed to more stimuli
B) The MSWO was not implemented correctly
C) The items are either all preferred or all non-preferred
D) Preference assessment is not likely to be effective for the client

C) The items are either all preferred or all non-preferred

33

The main benefit of identifying the break point in the progressive ratio (PR) reinforcement assessment, is that it provides information about
A) The maximum number of reinforcers that must be delivered after a response
B) The progressive reduction in speed of the delivery of the reinforcer leading to lower response rates
C) The minimum number of reinforcers that must be delivered after a response
D) The maximum amount of effort (work) you can require for a given amount of reinforcement

D) The maximum amount of effort (work) you can require for a given amount of reinforcement

34

A competing stimulus preference assessment identifies:
A) Preferential stimuli which will compete with other stimuli
B) All of the above could be a type of competing stimulus preference assessment
C) Stimuli which will compete with problematic behavior
D) Which stimuli are likely to be effective in differential reinforcement

C) Stimuli which will compete with problematic behavior

35

Research suggests that in many cases, when you mix edibles and tangible items together in preference assessments, what is likely to occur?
A) The preference hierarchies will be unpredictable
B) Tangibles may be selected over edibles
C) There are no noted effects
D) Edibles are likely to be selected over the tangibles

D) Edibles are likely to be selected over the tangibles

36

Each of the following methods may be used to help complete a behavioral assessment except:A) Interviews and checklists
B) Systematic manipulations
C) Observations and data collection
D) All of these methods can be used

D) All of these methods can be used

37

Kay, an 8-year old girl, engages in severe head-banging, mainly at home (about 90 minutes out of town). Kay’s parents would like Nikki, a new BCBA in private practice in town, to observe Kay at home, but Nikki tells them that, as a “one-person company”, she can’t take the time to drive out to their home. She requests that they bring Kay to her office/clinic in town instead. By conducting observations only in her office rather than in Kay’s home, Nikki fails to insure which characteristic of a proper behavioral assessment?
A) Assessment must take an ecological perspective
B) Behavior is intrinsically variable
C) Assessment is ongoing, not just pre- and/or post-treatment
D) Behavior is in itself important, not just a symptom

A) Assessment must take an ecological perspective

38

The following statement is from an actual behavioral assessment summary report: “Sammy hears voices which tell him to hurt his mother. He does not always listen to the voices but his mom is still afraid of him.” What is wrong with the statement?
A) “Hearing voices” which are not audible to others is not an observable antecedent
B) There is no mention of his diagnosis which would better explain these symptoms
C) “Hearing voices” and “not listening” are private behaviors
D) Nothing is wrong. The statement adequately states the problem

A) “Hearing voices” which are not audible to others is not an observable antecedent

39

What does the term “narrow band” mean in the Hawkins quasi-funnel analysis of behavior assessment?
A) Least accurate representation of a target behavior
B) Most accurate representation of a target behavior
C) Focuses on a broad set of response classes
D) Focuses on a small set of response classes

D) Focuses on a small set of response classes

40

According to Hawkins, what type of behavioral assessment is most narrow in focus with the highest fidelity?
A) Functional assessment
B) Indirect assessment
C) Descriptive analysis
D) Functional analysis

D) Functional analysis

41

Zach, a 26-year old male residing in a group home, has never been able to take a shower without staff assistance. Which type of assessment is most appropriate to use is assessing this skill deficit? Use an assessment …
A) based on a task analysis
B) on elementary verbal operants
C) of specific vocational skills
D) relating to social skills

A) based on a task analysis

42

Judy, a behavior analyst, is conducting a functional assessment for Brody, a 9-year old boy who lives in a community based group home. Caregivers in the home report that Brody fights his housemates on a daily basis, usually over toys. Which of the following would most likely be an appropriate focus of her functional assessment?

A) Brody’s precocious toy-play attributes and their effect on his relationships with his peers and staff
B) Mitigating the variables responsible for being a “poor sport” with toys
C) A psychiatric diagnosis of “conduct disorder” represented by malicious intent towards his housemates
D) Taking his housemates’ toys out of their rooms without permission

D) Taking his housemates’ toys out of their rooms without permission

43

Which component of functional assessment involves the systematic manipulation of environmental variables to clarify the environment—behavior relationship?
A) Functional analysis
B) Functional analysis and descriptive assessment
C) Descriptive assessment
D) Indirect assessment

A) Functional analysis

44

Evaluate the statements below and choose the one that is true:
A) All statements are true
B) A direct descriptive assessment can employ systematic manipulations
C) Functional assessment and functional analysis are the same thing
D) Indirect interviews are done in the preliminary stages of an assessment

D) Indirect interviews are done in the preliminary stages of an assessment

45

The X behavioral assessment method is known as the Y method, and the Z behavioral assessment method is known as the “show me” method.

A) X = data-based Y = tell me Z = observational
B) X = indirect Y = show me Z = direct
C) X = indirect Y = tell me Z = direct
D) X = observational Y = tell me Z = data-based

C) X = indirect Y = tell me Z = direct

46

Ke-Shing, a behavior analyst, is conducting a behavioral assessment of Fabrizzio, often described by his own mother as a “rotten brat”, especially when he is around his sister at home. For the preliminary stages of the assessment, Ke-Shing asks Fabrizzio’s mom to come to his office. Which assessment methods can Ke-Shing definitely do exclusively in his office, assuming he is a competent behavior analyst who is correctly using assessment methods?A) Records review, questionnaires, narrative recording
B) ABC data recording, questionnaires, interviews
C) Records review, questionnaires, interviews
D) Narrative recording, ABC data recording, scatterplots

C) Records review, questionnaires, interviews

47

All of the following are direct assessment methods EXCEPT:
A) All of the above are direct assessment methods
B) Narrative recording
C) Direct interview with the consumer
D) ABC data collection

C) Direct interview with the consumer

48

In an indirect assessment, the behavior analyst may have the opportunity to review a consumer’s active, current “client record”. This usually contains the most recent information (within 2-5 years) relating to the client’s various treatments, evaluations, data, and other relevant topics. Of the following list of documents, which ones would be acceptable for the behavior analyst to review as part of an indirect behavioral assessment.
A) Reports on interactions with faith healers
B) All of these should be reviewed
C) Old behavior service treatment plans and graphs
D) Records on music therapy sessions

B) All of these should be reviewed

49

Vincent selects a Functional Assessment Interview as one of the instruments he will be using while interviewing Matthew’s father. Upon entering the apartment for the first time, Vincent notices several movie posters including: “Total Recall”, “Minority Report” and “Blade Runner”. Vincent says, “I love movies inspired by Philip K. Dick stories, too!” Matthew’s dad smiles and replies, “Indeed, he was a true prophet of science fiction.” What is your evaluation of Vincent’s method of conducting the assessment so far?
A) Somewhat inappropriate as he is there to talk about Matthew, not science fiction.
B) Though important to build rapport this should have been done by asking questions about Matthew.
C) Somewhat appropriate but Vincent should be asking open-ended questions not making statements
D) Appropriate as it is important to build rapport at the beginning of an assessment.

D) Appropriate as it is important to build rapport at the beginning of an assessment.

50

In ABA, we empirically identify reinforcers because…
A) Reinforcers may not necessarily increase the frequency of behavior over time
B) Subjective opinions are highly correlated to actual reinforcer value
C) Use of reinforcement in applied settings often backfires and functions as a “bribe”
D) Reinforcers are behavior specific and can change over time

D) Reinforcers are behavior specific and can change over time

51

A preference assessment is an approach to identify:
A) Items and activities that function as reinforcers
B) The social validity (e.g., acceptability) of interventions
C) The preferred methods of treatment in a behavior plan
D) Items or activities a person is more likely to choose

D) Items or activities a person is more likely to choose

52

A person is given the opportunity to choose between two or more stimuli, or is presented with the opportunity to interact (or not) with a single stimulus. Many trials are presented. Data are collected, and an analysis of the person’s choices is completed. This describes a…
A) all of these answers are correct
B) response preference assessment
C) stimulus preference assessment
D) reinforcer assessment

C) stimulus preference assessment

53

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a pictorial preference assessmentA) It can include activities that can’t normally be included in many assessments
B) It is more accurate than other methods
C) Pictures are portable, so the assessment can be done in many settings
D) It can be more efficient (done more quickly with equal results)

B) It is more accurate than other methods

54

Naturalistic, direct observation:
A) All of these are correct answers
B) Uses direct observation of daily activities in the natural environment
C) Determines high-probability responses
D) Relies on the Premack Principle

A) All of these are correct answers

55

What are three general approaches for completing a preference assessment in ABA?
A) Indirect (informant-based), naturalistic direct observation, and reinforcer sampling
B) Single-operant, free-operant, and progressive ratio arrangements
C) Subjective evaluations, social comparison, and consumer choice.
D) All of these are general approaches to completing a preference assessment

A) Indirect (informant-based), naturalistic direct observation, and reinforcer sampling

56

Reinforcer assessment methods are conducted:
A) Following a preference assessment
B) After a punisher assessment
C) Only if a preference assessment cannot be conducted
D) Before a preference assessment

A) Following a preference assessment

57

Bob, a BCBA, is a regular visitor at a foster group home. He sits in the main living area at a side table, out of the way, awaiting the arrival of Oscar after a full day of school. As Oscar enters, Bob appears to be reading the newspaper, looks up to say, “Hi Oscar”, but looks back down at his paper. Bob is actually carefully observing Oscar without his realizing it, and taking notes on the activities Oscar chooses to do during the first hour of “free time” after his arrival home. Bob uses this information to begin to structure a more formal preference assessment. What type of activity is Bob engaged in?
A) Reinforcer sampling preference assessment
B) Single operant reinforcer assessment
C) Naturalistic direct observation preference assessment
D) Concurrent operant reinforcer assessment

C) Naturalistic direct observation preference assessment

58

In this reinforcer assessment procedure, “task completion” of a single task is not consequated during baseline (i.e., no intervention phases), and during reinforcement phases, “completion of task” is consequated with a particular stimulus. Data are collected on rates of task completion in the two conditions, which alternate. This describes a ________ arrangement.A) Single operant
B) Free-operant
C) Concurrent operant
D) Progressive ratio

A) Single operant

59

What type of experimental design is typically used when conducting a single operant arrangement reinforcer assessment?
A) Multi-element design
B) Withdrawal design
C) Changing criterion design
D) Multiple-baseline design

B) Withdrawal design

60

Which of the following is true regarding concurrent-operant arrangements?
A) Two completely different tasks are available in all phases
B) Two identical tasks are available in all phases
C) Multiple tasks are available in some phases
D) One task is available in all phases

B) Two identical tasks are available in all phases

Multiple tasks (two) are available in all phases a concurrent-operant arrangement, and these tasks must be identical to control for response effort.

61

When comparing preference assessment procedures, studies have shown that single stimulus assessment methods tend to produce X , and forced-choice (aka, “paired stimulus”) assessment methods tend to produce Y .
A)
X = False negatives Y = False positives

B)
X = Greater differentiation in selections
Y = Uniformly high selections

C)
X = False negatives Y = False negatives

D)
X = Uniformly high selections Y = Greater differentiation in selections

D)
X = Uniformly high selections Y = Greater differentiation in selections

62

According to DeLeon, the MSWO preference assessment was developed to combine the best features of the:
A) MSW and PS
B) SS and PS
C) SS and PS
D) SS and MSW

A) MSW and PS

63

Completing either an MSW preference assessment or an MSWO preference assessment takes ________ completing a paired stimulus preference assessment.

A) less time than
B) an unpredictable amount of time when compared to
C) more time than
D) about the same amount of time as

A) less time than

64

When compared to the paired choice preference assessment, the free operant assessment is likely to result in _____ problematic behavior (whether severe or otherwise) and will require _____ time to administer.A) Less; Less
B) More; Less
C) More; More
D) Less; More

A) Less; Less

65

When compared to the paired stimulus (PS)assessment method, both multiple stimulus assessments (MSW and MSWO) share the advantage of:
A) Screening out items that will not maintain behavior over the long-term
B) Identifying large numbers of moderately preferred items
C) Being relatively fast in terms of time to complete
D) Creating a hierarchy of preferences

C) Being relatively fast in terms of time to complete

66

In a concurrent operants reinforcer assessments of two or more reinforcers, what is likely to happen:
A) Stimuli that are highly preferred may overshadow lesser, but still effective, stimuli
B) Clients will respond in an unpredictable manner
C) Aggression will be more likely in clients prone to engaging in problematic behavior
D) Clients will allocate responses equally

A) Stimuli that are highly preferred may overshadow lesser, but still effective, stimuli

67

If I were interested only in identifying the most potent potential reinforcers, which of the following preference assessment methods might I select:A) Not enough information to determine the correct answer
B) Single stimulus
C) Both A and C are equally appropriate
D) Multiple stimulus with replacement

D) Multiple stimulus with replacement

68

Which of the following is a limitation of the single stimulus approach method:
A) Complex calculations after the assessments are completed
B) Is generally characterized by a lot of false negatives
C) Requires the removal of stimuli during the assessment
D) Tends to identify only a few potential reinforcers

C) Requires the removal of stimuli during the assessment

69

A duration-based preference assessment can clarify undifferentiated results, which have been obtained from all of the following preference assessments, except…

A) Results from all of these can be clarified by duration-based assessments
B) Multiple stimulus with replacement (MSW)
C) Multiple stimulus without replacement (MSWO)
D) Single stimulus (SS)

A) Results from all of these can be clarified by duration-based assessments

Undifferentiated results from an SS, MSW, MSWO or PS (paired-stimulus) assessment can be clarified by a using a duration assessment as a follow up. When the consumer does not show a choice hierarchy, the consumer may (and very likely does) show an engagement preference—that is, the consumer holds/plays with preferred items longer then he or she does a non-preferred item. For example, if in a single stimulus preference assessment, you sequentially place a teddy bear, a cup, and a rock in front of the person, they may pick up each one, so no clear preference is indicated. However, the person may hold the rock and the cup for only a few seconds before putting each one down – but then hold the teddy bear for several minutes. Duration assessments can be adapted to the MSWO, the MSW, or PS assessment type, where well-differentiated results have not been obtained.

70

In a competing stimulus preference assessment one would need to measure both _____ and _____.A) Engagement; Adaptive behavior
B) Off-task behavior; Problematic behavior
C) Engagement; Problematic behavior
D) Off-task behavior; Adaptive behavior

C) Engagement; Problematic behavior

71

A systematic gathering of information in order to make data-based decisions, regarding behavior and the environment.

Behavioral Assessment

72

Preliminary indirect assessment
Direct descriptive assessment
Functional analysis (systematic manipulations)

Components of a Functional Assessment

73

Record Review
Interview
Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires

Indirect Assessment Methods

74

Narrative Recording
ABC Data Collection
Measuring Dimensional and Dimensionless Quantities of Behavior
Scatterplots
Observation of Permanent Products

Direct Assessment Methods

75

Information regarding:
current and past behavioral repertoire
environmental factors
medical history

Records Review

76

Consist of questions to ask within pre-selected topics

Behavioral Interviews

77

Select instrument
Decide who to interview
Decide where and when
Make an appointment

Prior to Interview

78

Build rapport
Informally observe:
Behavior
Environment
Appearance of persons

Beginning of Interview

79

Ask open-ended questions
Ask follow-up questions
Acknowledge responses
Write notes or use recorder

During an Interview

80

Identify, define, and describe:
The behaviors
Potential ecological events
Events that predict occurrence of behaviors
Potential function of behaviors
Efficiency of behaviors
Functionally equivalent alternative behaviors
Communication methods
Potential reinforcers
History of target behavior and treatment(s)

Functional Assessment Interview Goals

81

Review notes/recording(s)
Summarize the findings:
Describe behavior
Identify environmental factors
Identify potential functions
Identify functionally equivalent behavior
Decide whether to continue behavioral assessment

After an Interview

82

Methods for identifying an individual’s preferences for tangible items or activities.

Preference Assessment (PA)

83

Indirect (informant-based)
Naturalistic, direct observation
Reinforcer sampling (empirical)

Three general ways to conduct preference assessments

84

Interview or questionnaire

Indirect (informant-based)

85

Observation of daily activities

Naturalistic direct observation

86

Systematic preference assessment

Reinforcer Sampling

87

Conducted following a preference assessment to determine if the stimulus is a reinforcer

Reinforcer Assessments

88

One task is available during all phases.
No programmed consequences for task completion.
During reinforcement phase (B), contingent on task completion (typically on an FR1), the stimulus is delivered.

Single Operant

89

Two identical tasks are available
No programmed consequences for completing either task
Increase in task completion from BL to Sr phase, stimulus = reinforcer

Concurrent operant assessment

90

All stimuli presented on every trial

Multiple Stimulus with Replacement

91

All stimuli presented on 1st trial, selected stimuli removed on subsequent trials

Multiple Stimulus without Replacement

92

Stimuli presented in pairs

Paired stimulus

93

All stimuli available for entire session
Free to interact with as many or as few stimuli as they want
No stimuli are removed during the assessment

Free-operant procedure

94

Duration-based assessment designed to determine the extent to which stimuli displace problem behavior

Competing Stimulus Assessment

95

Assess reinforcer effectiveness as the response requirement increases.

Progressive Ratio (PR) Schedules