Unit 9 Functional Analysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9 Functional Analysis Deck (41):
1

Sue completed an indirect assessment and a series of observations on Tony’s “threatening peers at school” behavior. She collected narrative recording, ABC data, and scatterplots, and developed a working hypothesis about the function of Tony’s threats. She then began another set of assessment procedures, which included systematically manipulating antecedents and consequences in a controlled setting to experimentally evaluate Tony’s behavior and its relationship with the environment. This latter set of assessment procedures, which included systematic manipulations of the environment, are otherwise known as a:
A) Functional analysis
B) Structured assessment
C) Functional assessment
D) Descriptive assessment

A) Functional analysis

2

Which of these statements is true? Functional…
A) assessment is completely distinct from functional analysis
B) assessment is a part of the functional analysis process
C) analysis is a part of the functional assessment process
D) analysis and functional assessment refer to the same thing

C) analysis is a part of the functional assessment process

3

Prior to the advent of functional assessment, most behavior interventions were

X = focused on the topography and severity of the target behavior rather than the function

Y = biased towards punishment for behavior reduction

Z = focused on development of replacement behavior

A) X and Y only
B) X only
C) Y and Z only
D) X, Y, and Z

A) X and Y only

4

The term “functional relation” was introduced by
A) Carr and Durand
B) Brian Iwata
C) B.F. Skinner
D) Baer, Wolf and Risley

C) B.F. Skinner

5

A functional relation…
A) exists when a change in an environmental event produces an orderly and predictable change in behavior
B) is found in the relationship between behavior and the environment, either one affecting the other in some way
C) exists when a change in the behavior systematically produces a predictable change in the environment
D) is any systematic relationship between events, whether they are stimuli, responses, or other conditions.

A) exists when a change in an environmental event produces an orderly and predictable change in behavior

6

The purpose of a functional analysis is to

X = identify the maintaining variables for a behavior

Y = identify the conditions under which the behavior is unlikely to occur

Z = designate the most appropriate treatment option

A) X, Y and Z
B) X and Y only
C) X only
D) Z only

B) X and Y only

7

Early studies in functional analysis, where control and test conditions were systematically manipulated and behavior repeatedly measured to identify the maintaining variables, tended to focus on:
A) Antecedent manipulations but not consequences
B) Automatic reinforcement only
C) Single contingent relationships in each study
D) Punishment procedures only

C) Single contingent relationships in each study

Early studies tended to focus on single contingent relationships, such as the effect on SIB of (suspected) positive reinforcement in the form of sympathetic statements (Lovaas). Punishment procedures were not the focus of these analyses, and neither were antecedent manipulations. Automatic reinforcement was addressed in some studies, but it was certainly not the primary focus of most studies. Single contingent relationships, whether for socially mediated positive or negative reinforcement, or automatic reinforcement, were the foci of various studies.

8

Each of the following is a basic feature of every functional analysis conducted with experimental rigor except:

A) Repeated measurement of behavior during both test and control conditions
B) Direct observation of the behavior
C) Use of continuous, direct measurements of a dimensional quantity of behavior
D) Manipulation of suspected controlling variables

C) Use of continuous, direct measurements of a dimensional quantity of behavior

9

In the Iwata model, which of the following may be present in the control condition, and NOT present in the test condition

X = Likely EOs

Y = Specific sources of reinforcement

A) Neither X nor Y
B) X only
C) Both X and Y
D) Y only

A) Neither X nor Y

The idea behind the control condition is that is does not provide reinforcement of any kind for the target behavior, nor does it set up any kind of establishing operation to increase the effectiveness of any form of reinforcement. Just the opposite is true: the control condition tries to reduce or eliminate establishing operations, and in fact set up abolishing operations by making all the potential reinforcers freely available as antecedent stimuli, thereby reducing their motivational effect as potential reinforcers, and otherwise reducing demand and enhancing environmental stimulation—thus short-circuiting the potential value of escape and automatic sensory stimulation.

10

Which of the following stimuli could not potentially function as a form of automatic reinforcement
A) An entrance door lock opens when you turn a key in the lock
B) A blizzard wind is blocked by your closing the front door
C) A breath of fresh air hits you right after you open the back door
D) An apartment door is opened by someone right after you knock

D) An apartment door is opened by someone right after you knock

11

In the functional analysis protocol for a problem behavior maintained by attention, the potential reinforcing consequence is typically…
A) Contingent access to food, toys, or other reinforcers
B) Social disapproval/verbal redirection
C) Removal of demand
D) Praise, and encouragement

B) Social disapproval/verbal redirection

12

Stevie often sang songs at the top of her lungs in inappropriate circumstances. As a result, she was being required to leave various community environments (e.g., stores, restaurants, movie theatres). Mr. Buckingham, her behavior analyst, completed a functional analysis. He believed that these community settings offered activities that Stevie would enjoy, but her behavior was increasing over time and her access to community settings was decreasing. During one of the FA test conditions, he would ask Stevie to do some kind of task, and if (and only if) she engaged in loud vocalizations, he would quietly remove the task and walk away. A little while later, he would re-present the task. This pattern repeated throughout this test condition. Which functional analysis test condition does this describe
A) Demand
B) Attention
C) Compliance
D) Not enough information to determine

A) Demand

13

Stevie’s standard functional analysis protocol (demand, attention, alone, control) did not provide any conclusive evidence regarding the function of her singing at the top of her lungs in various public settings. A descriptive assessment indicated that she did not typically exhibit this problem behavior in her supported living apartment, where she quietly lived with a roommate. What would make the most sense for Mr. Buckingham to do next to try to clarify the function?

A) All of these would be equally effective
B) Do a tangible test condition
C) Observe Stevie in the natural environment and look for idiosyncratic variables
D) Do a multiple stimulus with replacement (MSW) preference assessment

C) Observe Stevie in the natural environment and look for idiosyncratic variables

14

The “demand” condition in an FA evaluates whether a target behavior is maintained by:
A) Socially-mediated positive reinforcement
B) Socially-mediated negative reinforcement
C) Automatic reinforcement
D) Any of these contingencies can be related to demand

B) Socially-mediated negative reinforcement

15

Which of the following is the relevant establishing operation for a functional analysis test condition examining potential automatic reinforcement?
A) An impoverished environment
B) No attention for a period of time
C) Demand-free availability of edibles, activities, and social interaction
D) Presentation of a task to complete

A) An impoverished environment

16

Automatic reinforcement cannot be tested directly because…
A) social consequences are difficult to control
B) social consequences do not reinforce behavior
C) non-social consequences do not reinforce behavior
D) non-social consequences are difficult to control

D) non-social consequences are difficult to control

17

All of the following names are used for the non-test condition in a functional analysis except:
A) Alone
B) Control
C) Play
D) NCR

A) Alone

18

Escape can be identified as a reinforcer for a target behavior when responding is differentially high in the ___:
A) Demand condition
B) Alone condition
C) Play condition
D) Attention condition

A) Demand condition

19

During a functional analysis, which of the following contingencies is not directly tested via systematic manipulation?

A) Automatic reinforcement
B) Socially-mediated negative reinforcement
C) Socially-mediated positive reinforcement
D) All of these contingencies are tested directly

A) Automatic reinforcement

20

Budget cutbacks require all behavior service plans to be streamlined to remove “less effective” treatment components. The funding source has determined that trimming down to minimal, but still effective programs will significantly reduce staff resource requirements (fewer program procedures require fewer staff minutes per day). Individual service plan outcomes must not change under this new plan. Which type of analysis is most likely to identify program procedures, which may be removed from the overall treatment package without compromising its effectiveness?

A) Structural analysis
B) A multiple baseline design
C) Parametric analysis
D) Component analysis

D) Component analysis

A component analysis evaluates single components of a treatment package to determine its effectiveness, alone or in conjunction with other components. A parametric analysis would only look at various levels of a particular treatment, not the overall treatment itself. A structural analysis is another name for a functional analysis based on antecedent manipulations, and had not yet been introduced in this course (see later units). A multiple baseline design focuses on identifying the functional relationship between a behavior (a DV) and an intervention (an IV) but is not typically used for a component analysis since it looks at one intervention at time over different behaviors, subjects, or settings.

21

Which of the following is not a way to manage risks during a functional analysis outside the hospital setting?

A) Block SIB and aggression directed to vulnerable organs
B) Interview caregivers to obtain information about the severity of behavior
C) Use padded treatment room or padded helmet for head banging
D) Use a multiple-baseline design to intervene on the worst behavior first

D) Use a multiple-baseline design to intervene on the worst behavior first

22

Undifferentiated high levels of behavior across test conditions, while the level of behavior during control remains low, most likely indicates:
A) Different topographies having the same function
B) Intrinsic motivation
C) Behavior is undetermined
D) Multiple control

D) Multiple control

23

The tangible condition in a functional analysis evaluates whether a target behavior is maintained by:
A) Automatic reinforcement
B) Any of these contingencies
C) Socially-mediated positive reinforcement
D) Socially-mediated negative reinforcement

C) Socially-mediated positive reinforcement

24

The functional analysis as described by Durand and Carr (1992) differs from that described by Iwata et al (1982) in that Durand and Carr manipulate _________________ for each condition:
A) Only antecedents, especially establishing operations
B) Only consequences
C) Both antecedents and consequences
D) Only precursors but not consequences

A) Only antecedents, especially establishing operations

25

Which functional analysis model is most likely to produce the most clearly differentiated outcomes (see Worsdell et al., 2000)?
A) Iwata A-B-C functional analysis model
B) Iwata A-B functional analysis model
C) Carr and Durand A-B functional analysis model
D) Carr and Durand A-B-C functional analysis model

A) Iwata A-B-C functional analysis model

26

In a typical functional analysis, a problem with the use of a tangible test condition is that it can very easily (and quite often does):

X = produce false negatives

Y = produce false positives

Z = have iatrogenic effects (the procedure causes a new problem)

A) Y and Z
B) X and Z
C) X only
D) X and Y

A) Y and Z

27

What is the essential component in the most experimentally sound functional analysis test conditions?
A) All of these
B) A stimulus-response contingency
C) A response-stimulus contingency
D) A stimulus-stimulus contingency

C) A response-stimulus contingency

28

Wallace & Iwata (1999) compared results from FAs with 5-, 10-, and 15-minute session duration, and examined how well interpretations of 5 and 10-minute FAs matched the functions which had been identified during the standard 15-minute FAs. They found that _________ functional analysis sessions provided the best results.
A) All three, the 5-, 10-, and 15-minute
B) Only the 15-minute
C) The 5- and 10-minute
D) Both the 10- and 15-minute

D) Both the 10- and 15-minute

29

Billy, the subject of a functional assessment, is having difficulty discriminating between rapidly alternating conditions in a multi-element functional analysis. In order to reduce this problem, the experimenter can ….
A) Use shorter sessions to mitigate carry-over effects
B) Use salient discriminative stimuli in each different condition
C) Keep all non-essential experimental variables constant
D) Use a changing criterion design

B) Use salient discriminative stimuli in each different condition

30

As demonstrated by Conners et al. (2000), the use of clear discriminative stimuli to assist a subject in distinguishing between conditions in a standard multi-element functional analysis …

X = may increase the efficiency of functional analysis

Y = may increase the likelihood of obtaining clear outcomes

Z = is particularly helpful when conducting FAs using very few or brief duration sessions

A) X, Y and Z
B) Y and Z
C) X and Y
D) X and Z

A) X, Y and Z

31

In addition to the multi-element design, what other designs may be used for functional analysis?

X= Reversal

Y= Pairwise

Z= Changing criterion design

A) Y and Z
B) X and Y
C) X and Z
D) X, Y and Z

B) X and Y

32

Which of the following are potential constraints to conducting a functional analysis?

X= Limited control over the environment

Y= Potentially dangerous behavior

Z= Limited assessment time

A) X and Z
B) Y and Z
C) X, Y and Z
D) X and Y

C) X, Y and Z

33

Some practitioners cite limited assessment time as the major reason a functional analysis is not a realistic option. What is a possible solution to this stated problem, which would allow for the completion of a sound functional analysis?

A) Employ a reversal design instead of a multielement design
B) Use programmed SDs to enhance discriminability
C) Test the most likely single function only (compared to control), based on the results of the descriptive assessment
D) Use descriptive assessment and test various hypotheses through ongoing data collection

C) Test the most likely single function only (compared to control), based on the results of the descriptive assessment

34

Indirect Assessment (verbal report)
Descriptive Assessment (naturalistic observation)
Functional Analysis (experimental manipulation).

Types of functional assessments

35

Change in an independent variable (IV) produces orderly and predictable change in a dependent variable (DV)

Functional relation

36

Direct observation
Measurement of behavior under test and control conditions

Basic Features of FA

37

To test a specific hypothesis about the controlling variables for problem behavior

Functional Analysis Methodology

38

Multiple tests conditions can be elevated relative to the control

Multiple Control

39

Rapidly alternate between conditions

Multielement Design

40

One condition ran at a time
Less common because of amount of time required

Reversal Design

41

Fairly common
More efficient than reversal
One test condition alternated with control
May assist in discriminability of conditions

Pairwise