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Flashcards in Unit 8 Descriptive Functional Assessment Deck (78):
1

Prior to initiating services, a behavior analyst has the responsibility to validate that a referral warrants further action. This poses the first ethical challenge to the practitioner: deciding whether to:
A) Charge for one’s services or work on it pro bono.
B) Conduct a behavioral assessment first or begin treatment immediately.
C) Accept or reject the case.
D) Conduct a descriptive assessment and/or an analog functional analysis.

C) Accept or reject the case.

2

One of the characteristics of a functional behavior assessment is that it is based on the idea that the causes of behavior are
A) Extrinsic to the organism
B) An exclusive result of phylogenic provenance
C) An exclusive result of ontogenic provenance
D) Intrinsic to the organism

A) Extrinsic to the organism

Intrinsic means “internal” while extrinsic means “external”. The science of behavior analysis has discovered that the causes of behavior are in the environment, including current environmental conditions and learning history (ontogenic provenance), as well as being heavily influenced by physiological and genetic factors (phylogenic provenance).

3

A functional assessment may be divided into which 3 general methodological categories?
A) Narrative recording, ABC data recording, sequence analysis
B) Pattern analysis, sequence analysis, functional analysis
C) Descriptive assessment, structured assessment, systematic manipulations
D) Indirect assessment, descriptive assessment, functional analysis

D) Indirect assessment, descriptive assessment, functional analysis

4

Which functional assessment method uses direct interviews with the consumer, whenever possible, about their own behavior problems, and possible replacement behaviors?
A) Direct assessment
B) Indirect assessment
C) Descriptive analysis
D) Functional analysis

B) Indirect assessment

5

During which phase of a functional assessment is the behavior analyst most likely to determine that a direct assessment is necessary?
A) Indirect assessment
B) Functional analysis
C) Structured assessment
D) Descriptive assessment

A) Indirect assessment

6

In Hawkins’ quasi-funnel model of behavioral assessment, indirect assessment is X , descriptive assessment is Y , and functional analysis is Z .

A) X= Narrow band, high fidelity Y= Medium band, medium fidelity Z= Broad band, low fidelity
B) X= Medium band, medium fidelity Y= Broad band, low fidelity Z= Narrow band, high fidelity
C) X= Broad band, low fidelity Y= Narrow band, high fidelity Z= Medium band, medium fidelity
D) X= Broad band, low fidelity Y= Medium band, medium fidelity Z= Narrow band, high fidelity

D) X= Broad band, low fidelity Y= Medium band, medium fidelity Z= Narrow band, high fidelity

7

Which functional assessment method consists of direct observation of the environment and the target behaviors as they occur in the person’s everyday life (i.e., where the behavior is actually occurring)?
A) Functional analysis
B) Indirect assessment
C) Structured assessment
D) Descriptive assessment

D) Descriptive assessment

8

The systematic manipulation of only antecedents during a functional assessment is known as a

X = Structured assessment

Y = A-B-A experimental design

Z = A-B functional analysis

A) X and Z only
B) Y and Z only
C) X, Y, and Z
D) X and Y only

A) X and Z only

9

During this method of functional assessment, the behavior analyst systematically manipulates antecedent and/or consequent environmental events, while repeatedly measuring the target behavior, often in a controlled setting. This can lead to a clear identification of functional relations in effect regarding the target behavior.
A) Functional analysis
B) Descriptive assessment
C) Structured assessment
D) Indirect assessment

A) Functional analysis

10

Which of the following is a reason for conducting a Descriptive Assessment?

X= Generate a hypothesis about functional relations

Y= Identify idiosyncratic reinforcing events

Z= Help design experimental function analysis conditions

A) X, Y and Z
B) X and Y
C) X only
D) Y and Z

A) X, Y and Z

11

Which of the following statements is true about descriptive assessment?
A) A descriptive assessment is typically adequate to clearly determine functional relationships.
B) A descriptive assessment may be adequate to clearly determine functional relationships provided that systematic manipulations are conducted as part of the descriptive assessment.
C) A descriptive assessment may be adequate to clearly determine a functional relationship provided that it is a simple one.
D) A descriptive assessment is a passive process during which variables are NOT manipulated.

D) A descriptive assessment is a passive process during which variables are NOT manipulated.

12

The results of a descriptive assessment demonstrate a(n) X relationship between events. The results of a functional analysis can demonstrate a(n) Y relationship between events?

A)
X = correlational

Y = correlational


B)
X = correlational

Y = causal


C)
X = causal

Y = correlational


D)
X = causal

Y = internally valid

B)
X = correlational

Y = causal

13

Michael, a behavior analyst, just completed an indirect assessment on a 10-year old boy named Stewart. Michael must now conduct a direct descriptive assessment. What procedures should Michael use?
A) Sequence analysis, pattern analysis, functional analysis
B) Direct interviews, preference assessment, structured assessment
C) Functional analysis, descriptive analysis, A-B functional analysis
D) Narrative recording, scatterplot data recording, ABC data collection

D) Narrative recording, scatterplot data recording, ABC data collection

14

When are data recorded when using a scatterplot?
A) At the end of the each interval
B) When the day ends
C) Any of these answers is correct
D) For every occurrence during the interval

A) At the end of the each interval

15

Medea, a BCBA, is conducting a direct descriptive assessment. She begins by observing Jason at his family residence for a two hour session. Medea will be most likely to obtain valuable information on Jason’s problem behavior by using which of the following assessment tools?
A) Whole interval recording of problem behavior.
B) Narrative recording.
C) The Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST).
D) A scatter-plot.

B) Narrative recording.

16

During a pre-treatment assessment, parents complete a scatterplot on the head-banging behavior of their 7-year old son. Head-bangs tend to occur nearly every day between 7 AM and 8 AM. Which of the following questions would make the most sense for the behavior analyst to ask the parents upon reviewing the scatterplot, in order to begin to formulate a pattern analysis?

A) Why do you think your child behaves this way?
B) What event occurred right before the behavior?
C) What consequences follow head banging?
D) What activities typically occur between 7-8 AM?

D) What activities typically occur between 7-8 AM?

17

Given the information in the question above, i.e., that the head-bangs tend to occur between 7AM and 8AM on most days, what activity should the behavior analyst do next?
A) Write up a sequence analysis statement
B) Schedule observations between 7AM and 8AM
C) Have the parents take rate data in the morning
D) Write the program

B) Schedule observations between 7AM and 8AM

18

Which of the following types of data collection would be most likely to allow for the repeated documentation, through a coding system, of a specifically identified target response — which would also include both immediate antecedents and immediate consequences in each recorded event?
A) Direct measurement of permanent product
B) ABC data collection
C) Scatterplot
D) Narrative recording

B) ABC data collection

19

What assessment data collection type provides information about the frequency of a target behavior in different situations (places, activities), without using systematic manipulation?

A) Scatterplot
B) Data collection across conditions
C) ABC data collection
D) Narrative recording

B) Data collection across conditions

20

Which direct descriptive assessment method would be most helpful in helping to develop a clear response definition for a target behavior which is not well defined in the record, or well described during interviews?
A) Functional Analysis
B) ABC recording
C) Narrative recording
D) Scatterplot

C) Narrative recording

21

A scatterplot may use:

X = Event recording, such as a raw count of behavior during a time interval

Y = Recording the occurrence/non-occurrence of specific behavior(s)

Z = Discrete categorization, such as use of codes for “none”, “1-3 times”, and “more than 3”

A) X and Z
B) X and Y
C) Y and Z
D) X, Y, and Z

C) Y and Z

22

Certain types of descriptive assessment data identify the times of day and the days of the week when a target behavior is most likely to occur. These data can be compiled and analyzed. This is known as a:
A) Statistical analysis
B) Pattern analysis
C) Sequence analysis
D) Functional analysis

B) Pattern analysis

23

Which type of direct descriptive assessment method would provide the most details about idiosyncratic consequences which follow problem behavior emitted by a client a behavior analyst is observing?
A) ABC recording
B) Functional Analysis
C) Scatterplot
D) Narrative recording

D) Narrative recording

24

A pattern analysis arises out of which of the following types of data?

X = Narrative recording

Y = Scatterplot data

Z = ABC data recording

A) X and Y only
B) Y only
C) X, Y, and Z
D) X only

B) Y only

25

Toren bites his own hand repeatedly, and has caused some tissue damage. Which of the following is the best example of a pattern analysis? Toren’s hand biting most likely…

A) occurs after a staff person makes a request. This typically results in termination of the demand.
B) occurs right before break-time at the workshop, right before workshop is over, and right before bed-time
C) is maintained by contingent attention in the form of reprimands.
D) happens right after Toren says, “I’ll be a good boy for Mrs. Robinson”, then he flaps his hands, and bites his hand

B) occurs right before break-time at the workshop, right before workshop is over, and right before bed-time

26

arrative recording and/or ABC data collection allow for a:
A) Sequence analysis
B) Visual analysis
C) Pattern analysis
D) Statistical analysis

A) Sequence analysis

27

In his classroom at school, when Paul is presented with demands to write lower-case letters, he often kicks, scratches, and/or bites. This results in Paul being sent to a “quiet” area, in the corner of the classroom. This description is an example of a:
A) Pattern analysis
B) Sequence analysis
C) Visual analysis
D) Functional analysis

B) Sequence analysis

28

Lauren’s likelihood of head banging tends to be higher in the morning than in the afternoon and evenings. This is an example of a:
A) Statistical analysis
B) Sequence analysis
C) Pattern analysis
D) Functional analysis

C) Pattern analysis

29

Which functional assessment methodology is necessary to provide the most valid assessment results?
A) Indirect assessment
B) Descriptive assessment
C) Functional analysis
D) A combination of all of these

D) A combination of all of these

30

“The degree to which an assessment establishes that changes in a target behavior (the dependent variable) are under the control of identified motivating and maintaining environmental events” is otherwise known as:
A) Internal validity
B) Social validity
C) External validity
D) Experimental validity

A) Internal validity

31

Descriptive assessment has been shown to have X internal validity and Y external validity.

A) X = Medium to high
Y = Low to medium
B) X = Low
Y = Medium to high
C) X = Medium to high
Y = Medium to high
D) X = Very high
Y = Low to medium

B) X = Low
Y = Medium to high

32

What is the degree of internal validity associated with functional analysis methods?
A) Very low
B) Medium to high (if differential responding is observed)
C) Low
D) Low to medium (depending on plausible alternative accounts)

B) Medium to high (if differential responding is observed)

33

Prior to initiating a formal functional assessment, the behavior analyst must perform a X , which poses the first ethical challenge to the practitioner, in Y .

A) X = Diagnosis Y = having to identify psychological factors underlying the behavior
B) X = Diagnosis Y = determining if the behavior is subject to change
C) X = Screening Y = deciding to accept the case or reject it
D) X = Screening Y = determining if the behavior is subject to change

C) X = Screening Y = deciding to accept the case or reject it

34

Sandra is conducting a functional assessment using direct observation methods. After selecting a narrative recording form, she focuses exclusively on recording challenging behaviors, and any possible related socially-mediated consequences. From these findings she decides to use other assessment tools, focusing on systematic manipulations to get a clearer idea of function. What is your evaluation of her functional assessment process so far?
A) Incomplete; she has completed an excellent narrative recording section, but now must move on to the functional interview and the record review.
B) Incomplete; a narrative recording is only the beginning of the observation phase, and should contain information on target behaviors, precursors, social and non-social consequences, and possibly related antecedents.
C) There is not enough information here to make a determination; no mention is made regarding the accuracy of her functional assessment or the effectiveness of the eventual function-based plan.
D) Complete; she identified all the problem behaviors and maintaining consequences, and can proceed to a scatter plot, and the development of a function-based plan.

B) Incomplete; a narrative recording is only the beginning of the observation phase, and should contain information on target behaviors, precursors, social and non-social consequences, and possibly related antecedents.

35

What are the general methodologies of functional assessment?

X= Descriptive Assessment

Y= Functional Analysis

Z= Indirect Assessment

A) Y and Z
B) X and Y
C) X and Z
D) X, Y and Z

D) X, Y and Z

36

Indirect functional assessment methods include:

X = Records review

Y = Direct interviews with the consumer

Z = Narrative recordings

A) X only
B) X and Y only
C) X, Y, and Z are all indirect methods
D) Y and Z only

B) X and Y only

37

This functional assessment method is based entirely on observation, and at best leads to a working but tentative hypothesis regarding functional relations.
A) Descriptive assessment
B) Structured assessment
C) Indirect assessment
D) Functional analysis

A) Descriptive assessment

38

In Hawkins’ analysis, which type of behavioral assessment falls in the middle of the range in terms of scope of information collected (with the range extending from broadband to narrow band), and also falls in the middle in terms of focus and fidelity of the information (ranging from low fidelity to high fidelity)?

A) Descriptive assessment.
B) Functional analysis.
C) Clinical interview.
D) Indirect assessment.

A) Descriptive assessment.

39

This method of functional assessment consists of manipulation of antecedent events in natural settings, and may identify antecedents that evoke challenging target behavior.
A) Descriptive assessment
B) Functional analysis
C) Structured assessment
D) Indirect assessment

C) Structured assessment

40

Which of the following is a reason for conducting a descriptive assessment?

X = Observe the natural environment and develop a working functional hypothesis

Y = Determine, if at all possible, the precise functional relationships between the behavior and the environment

Z = Identify precursors and potential other target behaviors which were not initially identified as problematic

A) X only
B) X and Z only
C) X, Y, and Z
D) Y and Z only

B) X and Z only

41

What is the major limitation of a descriptive assessment? It cannot provide…
A) information about possible functional relations
B) information about potential stimulus control issues and establishing operations which are likely to be involved.
C) information about the relationship between time of day and the likely occurrence of the target behavior
D) the precision and internal validity of systematic manipulations

D) the precision and internal validity of systematic manipulations

42

Descriptive assessments are X in nature; functional analysis is Y in nature?

A) X = observational Y = active & experimental
B) X = loosely relational Y = scientifically correlational
C) X = visually analytical Y = mathematical (and sometimes statistical)
D) X = active & experimental Y = purely observational

A) X = observational Y = active & experimental

43

All of the following are reasons to conduct a descriptive assessment, except:

A) Collect information about a person’s behavior in particular environments
B) Determine actual functional relationships, whenever possible, between a person’s behavior and the environment
C) All of these are reasons to conduct a descriptive assessment
D) Develop working hypotheses regarding functional relationships between behavior and the environment

B) Determine actual functional relationships, whenever possible, between a person’s behavior and the environment

44

Michael engages in very severe self-injury (he punches his ears, causing severe tissue damage, and some hearing loss). Two years ago, his behavior analyst Rene conducted a brief descriptive assessment, immediately followed by a long but inconclusive functional analysis. Two years of various ineffective treatments have followed. Rene has finally referred Michael to a different BCBA named Brian, who has a great deal of experience in treating chronic SIB. Brian plans to conduct a second full functional analysis, since no clear function of the self-injury has ever been identified. Brian is concerned that the prior functional analysis did not test the correct reinforcers or maintaining conditions, so decides to begin with a new, comprehensive descriptive assessment, prior to initiating any new functional analysis protocols. Given this scenario, what is the likely reason Brian is taking the time to conduct another descriptive assessment?
A) Identify possible idiosyncratic antecedents and reinforcing consequences
B) Evaluate the external validity of past experimental protocols
C) Clearly identify the functional relationships between the behavior and the environment
D) Interpret the results of past experimental functional analysis data

A) Identify possible idiosyncratic antecedents and reinforcing consequences

45

During a pre-treatment assessment on an individual who engages in high rates of physical assault, a scatterplot completed by the direst care staff persons reveals zero rates of assault between 5 and 6 PM every day. Which of the following questions makes the most sense for the behavior analyst to ask the staff upon reviewing the scatterplot?

A) Why do you think rates of aggression are so low?
B) Do you think the intervention plan is working?
C) What activities typically occur between 5 and 6 PM?
D) What were the antecedents?

C) What activities typically occur between 5 and 6 PM?

46

A Scatterplot is used to:

A) Determine functional relations between behavior and the environment
B) Identify patterns of responding in natural settings
C) Determine how a specific sequence of events affects responding in natural settings
D) Identify antecedent and consequences that occasion and maintain behavior

B) Identify patterns of responding in natural settings

47

On a Scatterplot, the vertical axis represents X , and the horizontal axis represents Y .

A) X= chronological time intervals Y= successive days
B) All are acceptable depending on the Scatterplot’s intended use
C) X= the dependent variable Y= sessions
D) X= occurrence/nonoccurrence Y= discrete categories

A) X= chronological time intervals Y= successive days

48

An observer focuses on an individual, and writes down a chronological description of what that person does or says, as well as what is done or said by others around that individual; in addition, the observer includes brief descriptions of other environmental events which are most likely perceived by the individual under observation, and may be having an effect of some kind. This is a description of:
A) Event recording
B) A scatter plot
C) Narrative recording
D) Permanent product recording

C) Narrative recording

49

Which type of direct descriptive assessment method would be the most likely to provide the most details about idiosyncratic antecedents, which lead to problem behavior?

A) Narrative recording
B) ABC recording
C) Scatterplot
D) Functional Analysis

A) Narrative recording

50

Which of the following statements correctly characterize narrative recording data? Narrative recordings….

X= provide an effective way to clarify target behavior definitions and precursors

Y= facilitate the identification of idiosyncratic antecedents and consequences

Z= can be easily graphed, and lend themselves to efficient quantitative analysis

A) X and Y
B) X only
C) Z and Y
D) X, Y and Z

A) X and Y

51

Which type of data collection focuses exclusively on pre-selected and defined target behaviors, immediate antecedents, and consequences?

A) Scatterplot
B) ABC data collection
C) Narrative recording
D) Data collection of target behavior under different contexts/conditions

B) ABC data collection

52

J.D., a behavior analyst, is directly observing Kevin in his classroom and writes the following: “The teacher is lecturing the class. Kevin has his head down with a sweat jacket hood covering his head and face. The teacher walks over to him and taps him on the shoulder as he asks him to participate. Kevin ignores this request by keeping his head down and the teacher walks away. A minute later, Kevin lifts his head up and screams an obscenity. The teacher tells Kevin to leave his classroom and “think about what he did.” Kevin then leaves the classroom and does not return.” This is most likely the result of which assessment procedure?

A) ABC data collection
B) Narrative recording
C) Scatterplot
D) Functional analysis

B) Narrative recording

53

Data collection across conditions provides information on:

A) The exact nature of environment-behavior functional relations
B) Socially mediated consequences that maintain problem behavior
C) Antecedents and precursors that evoke problem behavior in all kinds of situations
D) Different probabilities of a target behavior occurring in different contexts

D) Different probabilities of a target behavior occurring in different contexts

54

Scatterplot data may compiled and summarized into a brief outline of data-based findings, which are otherwise known as a:

A) Functional analysis
B) Pattern analysis
C) Sequence analysis
D) Statistical analysis

B) Pattern analysis

55

A sequence analysis arises out of which of the following types of data?

X = Narrative recording

Y = Scatterplot data

Z = ABC data recording

A) Z only
B) Y only
C) X and Z only
D) X, Y, and Z

C) X and Z only

56

“Steven’s rate of hitting and crying tends to be higher right after circle time and before lunch.” This is an example of a:

A) Sequence analysis
B) Visual analysis
C) Functional analysis
D) Pattern analysis

D) Pattern analysis

57

A sequence analysis identifies ________ that are typically related to occurrences of a target behavior.

A) Precursors and other responses
B) Antecedents and consequences
C) Times of day and days of the week
D) Contexts and activities

B) Antecedents and consequences

58

When denied access to his lunchbox, Richard usually cries and slaps his own face. Frequently, this results in getting a snack. This is an example of a:

A) Sequence analysis
B) Visual analysis
C) Functional analysis
D) Pattern analysis

A) Sequence analysis

59

The degree to which an assessment establishes that findings hold true across variations in motivating and reinforcement conditions, and that this findings hold true across time. This is referred to as:

A) Internal validity
B) Social validity
C) External validity
D) Experimental validity

C) External validity

Experimental validity is not a type of validity discussed in ABA. Internal validity is the degree to which an assessment establishes that a target behavior is a function of specific motivating and maintaining events. Social validity is related to how an intervention is perceived by consumers.

60

What is the degree of internal validity associated with descriptive assessment methods?
A) Medium to high (depending on plausible alternative accounts)
B) Zero
C) Low
D) Very high (if differential responding is observed)

C) Low

61

Descriptive assessment methods have been correlated with ___ degrees of external validity.

A) Always high
B) Low to high
C) Medium to high
D) Low to medium

C) Medium to high

62

Functional analyses have been shown to have X internal validity and Y external validity.

A) X = Low Y = Medium to high
B) X = Medium to high Y =Low to medium
C) X = Very low Y = Low to medium
D) X = Low to medium Y = Medium to high

B) X = Medium to high Y =Low to medium

63

Louie bangs his chin on objects to the point where he is regularly bruised, and sometimes has an open sore under his chin. A descriptive assessment is initiated. Which of the following is the best example of a sequence analysis describing Louie’s chin-banging? Chin-banging most likely…
A) occurs after Louie bares his teeth, screeches and snaps his head up and down 3 or 4 times. He then extends his chin forward and quickly snaps it down onto any object within reach.
B) begins when Louie’s dad or teacher issues some kind of request. Chin-banging frequently results in termination of the demand.
C) happens early in the morning at home, right before lunch at school, right before school is out, and right before bed-time.
D) is maintained by contingent attention from his parents and his teachers.

B) begins when Louie’s dad or teacher issues some kind of request. Chin-banging frequently results in termination of the demand.

64

A type of behavioral assessment used to determine functional relations between challenging behavior and environmental events.

Functional Assessment

65

A type of behavioral assessment used to determine functional relations between challenging behavior and environmental events.

Functional Assessment

66

functional behavioral assessment (FBA)

Functional Assessment

67

Direct descriptive functional assessment

Descriptive assessment

68

experimental analysis

Functional analysis

69

Interviews and rating scales
Descriptive Assessment

Preliminary Indirect Assessment

70

Direct observation of behavior and environmental events in real-life contexts

Descriptive Assessment

71

Manipulation of antecedent events in natural settings

Structured Assessment

72

Systematic manipulations of environmental events and observation of target behavior in a controlled setting

Functional Analysis

73

Scatterplot analysis
Narrative recording
ABC data collection
Data collection of target behavior under different contexts/conditions

Descriptive Assessment Procedures

74

A data collection form for problem behavior and the intervals of time behavior occurred.
It provides a graphic display of data in a grid format.
It is used to identify patterns of responding in natural settings.

Scatterplot

75

Observer produces a written narrative of an individual’s responses throughout a specific period of time and a description of the environmental conditions under which the responses were emitted

Narrative Recording

76

Allows one to start to identify idiosyncratic antecedents and consequences

Narrative Recording and ABC Charting

77

A systematic presentation and/or examination of information or data regarding the target behavior and its conditions.

Pattern Analysis

78

A systematic presentation and examination of information or data regarding target behavior and its stimulus conditions in an A-B-C format

Sequence Analysis