Unit 2 - Key Area 1 (Geosphere) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 - Key Area 1 (Geosphere) Deck (24)
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1

Give an example of how the Earth generates internal heat

•Extra terrestrial impacts

•Gravitational Contraction

•Decay of Radioactive elements (fission)

2

Movement of heat from core to crust

Convection

3

Term when two plates move towards each other

Destructive boundary

4

A feature of a destructive boundary

• Subduction zones
• Volcanoes
• Extrusive rock
• Intrusive rock
• Metal deposits
• Fold mountains
• Earthquakes
• Bauxite deposits

5

Formed when two land-based plates move towards each other

Collision zone

6

Formed when one land and one oceanic plate move towards each other

Subduction zone

7

Two plates diverging (moving away) from each other

Constructive boundary

8

Feature of constructive boundary

• Underwater volcanoes
• Hydrothermal vents
• Mineral deposits

9

Describe the formation of bauxite

-Rocks rich in aluminium are weathered
-Aluminium leaches into soil and water
-Occurs in tropical/warm areas
-Layered in sedimentary rock

10

How is bauxite extracted

Open cast or strip mining

11

How is bauxite turned into aluminium metal?

Bauxite is purified to yield a white powder, aluminium oxide, from which aluminium can be extracted. The extraction is done by electrolysis.

12

Environmental issues with producing bauxite

•Heavy metal pollution in groundwater
•High energy cost in electrolysis (fossil fuels)
•Habitat degradation/loss

13

Describe the Earth's geothermal gradient

The geothermal gradient is the amount that the Earth's temperature increases with depth

14

Name two sources of geothermal energy

•Steam or hot water (underground)

•Hot rocks (where water can be added)

15

How can geothermal energy be produced?

•steam or hot water can be extracted and used to generate electricity or piped directly to district heating schemes

•ground source heat pumps (water pumped down and heated undergound) - turns a turbine on surface

16

Benefits of geothermal energy

Renewable

Cheap to run once installed

No Greehouse gases

17

Challenges of geothermal energy

Unavailable in certain countries that are not near a plate boundary/tectonic activity

Toxic gases could potentially be released

18

Exstrusive rock

Rock formed on the surface of the Earth (outwith the crust)

19

Intrusive rock

Rock formed inside the earth

20

Magma

Molten rock stored in internal areas of the Earth

21

Lava

Molten rock that is on the surface of the Earth

22

Mineral

A substance made up of one type of compound or molcule (E.g. aluminium oxide)

23

Rock

Many types of minerals joined together chemically or due to pressure and compaction

24

Ore

a naturally occurring solid material from which a metal or valuable mineral can be extracted profitably